DSL 200 UM Body Composition & Wellness of Individuals Lab Experiment
Your assignment based upon the experiment is to answer the questions that appear on the last page of the Lab Experiment document and submit your essay type responses
Science Experiment: DSL 200G
Body Composition and Wellness
Knowing all about your body composition can help you determine the general state of your
overall health. Even if you appear to be healthy on the outside and weigh in at a seemingly
normal weight on the scale, you may still have an unhealthy or altered body composition.
Body composition is the body’s relative amount of body fat to fat-free mass, the latter of which
is made up of your organs, bones, muscle, and body tissue. If your ratio of body fat is much
higher than your fat-free mass, then you could be putting yourself at risk for severe health
problems such as obesity, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, fatigue, cancer, and
Although body fat is generally associated with poor health, some fat is actually necessary for
overall good health, as it can help protect internal organs, regulate hormones, and provide us
with energy. Body fat should typically make up about 5% of total body weight in men and about
12% of total body weight in women.
Unlike body weight — which just takes into account the number on the scale — your body
composition takes into account where your weight comes from. Knowing what percentage of
your body weight is fat offers more insight into your health, since carrying too much fat tissue
affects your health, even if your actual weight falls into a healthy range. Being overfat — whether
you’re also overweight or have a healthy weight but a high body-fat percentage — poses a major
health risk, so maintaining a healthy body composition lowers the risk of certain obesity-related
Better Weight Control and Metabolism
You’ll have an easier time maintaining your weight and avoiding that all-too-familiar weight
creep as you age if you maintain a healthy body composition. Having a healthy body
composition means having a relatively low level of body fat, with most of your weight coming
from lean mass, including muscle tissue. That lean tissue burns more calories 24 hours a day -even when you’re sleeping — and accounts for about 20 percent of your daily calorie burn,
compared to around 5 percent for your fatty tissue. That means a person with more muscle will
have a higher metabolism than someone of the same weight, height, gender and age who has a
higher body-fat percentage.
Lower Risk of Cardiovascular Disease
Having a healthy body composition can help lower your chances of developing cardiovascular
disease. High body fat levels up your risk of hypertension, which is chronically elevated blood
pressure. Over time, hypertension strains your heart and puts extra pressure on your arteries,
which can cause heart failure. Carrying extra weight in your midsection also typically means you
have visceral fat, which threatens your heart health. This deep-abdominal fat negatively affects
your cholesterol levels, which in turn increases your risk of heart disease.
Reduced Risk of Other Health Conditions
Being overfat also contributes to other chronic illnesses, so maintaining a healthy body
composition can lower your disease risk. Harmful belly fat increases chronic inflammation,
which can make you more likely to develop inflammation-related diseases like asthma, explains
Harvard Medical School. High belly fat levels also up your risk of colorectal and breast cancers,
and they negatively affect your brain, boosting your risk of dementia.
Achieving a Healthy Body Composition
A definition of a healthy body composition changes according to your gender and age. For
example, women in their 20s should aim for a body fat percentage of 16 to 24 percent, while men
in their 20s should have lower body fat levels — 7 to 17 percent, according to guidelines
developed by the American College of Sports Medicine.
As you age, it’s normal for your body fat to increase a little — a woman in her 50s, for example,
should try to maintain a body fat level of 22 to 31 percent. It can be hard to get an accurate body
fat measurement at home, but your doctor or an expert at a sports clinic can help you determine
your body composition. Keep in mind that you can have an unhealthy body composition even if
you have a healthy weight — a condition sometimes called “skinny fat,” or normal-weight obesity
— so you could still face a higher disease risk even if you’re not overweight. While you can have
normal-weight obesity at any age, you’ll face a higher risk of it as you get older, due to your
body’s natural tendency to lose muscle and gain fat.
The Body Mass Index (BMI) is the most well-known measurement of an individual’s body fat
content based on height and weight, yet it has come under recent criticism for being unreliable
and inaccurate. This experiment was conducted to determine if the BMI is an accurate, consistent
measurement of an individual’s body fat content and to compare various measurement
techniques for analyzing body composition in order to assess an overall individual’s fitness and
wellness and to evaluate the class as a whole with respect to BMI and Body Composition.
Four individual measurements will be collected and plotted in graph form; blood pressure /heart
rate, electronic body fat %, and electronic BMI analysis.
The assessments will be based upon: 1) collecting demographic data for each participant
including weight, height, gender, age. The participants will be assigned a number to maintain
anonymity with respect to the data collected. 2) Each participant will then, using an OMRON
electronic body fat analyzer have their BMI and Fat % determined and recorded. 3) Students will
then use a digital syphgmomanometer to determine their blood pressure. The collected values
will then be plotted using a scatter plot graph and evaluated.
Observation: Based upon published data there has been an effort to link the weight an
individual is carrying to the development of high blood pressure (Hypertension).
Question: Can we make a link to an increased BMI (Body Mass Index) number in
individuals to an increase in their overall blood pressure.
Hypothesis: Individuals that fall into the BMI category of “Overweight” and/or “Obese”
will have an increase in their MAP (Mean Arterial Pressure) above the normal range.
Experimentation: Materials / Methods
Materials: A complete list of materials that were used is to be listed here in a numbered
2. Height Measure
3. Omron BMI Analyzer
4. Blood Pressure/Heart rate Cuff
Methods: The procedures to be followed are listed here sequentially.
STAGE 1: Demographic data for each participant. The collected data includes: age, gender,
weight and height.
Description / Procedure: Stage 1: All participants will be weighed and have their height
measured as well as provide data on age and gender. The data will be entered into data table
STAGE 2: This step will require each participant to determine their BMI and Body Fat % using
the OMRON Body Fat Analyzer based upon instructions from the Instructor.
STAGE 3: Complete the information for Table # 4, filling in the data for the Omron BMI and
Fat Analysis %.
STAGE 4: Each participants blood pressure is determined using an electronic blood pressure
cuff and entered into Table # 4.
STAGE 5: This stage requires you to plot the data on Graphs 1- 3 for the data that is found in
Table # 4.
STAGE 6: This step consists of completing the questions in the “Conclusion” section of the
Results: All tables and Graphs are to be placed in this section with appropriate
explanations of what the Tables and Graphs represent.
Tables & Graphs to be included:
a) Table 1 (Body Fat Chart)
b) Table 2 (BMI Chart)
c) Table 3 (Demographics Table)
d) Table 4 (Experimental Data)
e) Graph 1 (Scatter Plot of Electronic BMI Calculation)
f) Graph 2 (Scatter Plot of Body Fat %)
g) Graph 3 (Scatter Plot of Blood Pressure Distribution)
STAGE 7: Compare data for the class as a whole to the recommended values.
Recommended Chart Results
Recommended Body Fat % Table # 1
Body Fat %
Measuring body fat is very important because it gives you a better picture of what the changes
that are taking place in your body really mean. When you step on a scale it doesn’t tell the whole
story because you don’t know where the difference in your weight came from.
Your body fat % is what matters most when it comes to knowing if you are losing fat and not just
weight (either water weight or muscle mass). Measuring your body fat can help you better
manage your exercise routine and reveal whether any adjustments to your exercise and diet
program are needed. For example, if you have been dieting, with little or no exercise, you may
find that you’ve lost as much lean muscle tissue as fat. Increasing your physical activity and
testing again after 4 to 6 weeks can help determine whether you’ve shifted back to a healthy rate
of body fat loss and muscle gain. The range for ideal body fat percentages is fairly wide because
age and gender affect the number and, most importantly, because everyone’s body is unique.
Used in combination with body mass index (BMI) guidelines, body fat percentage can help
assess disease risk.
Recommended Body Mass Index: Table # 2
Body Mass Index (BMI) is one of the most accurate ways to determine when extra pounds
translate into health risks. BMI is a measure of body fat based on your height and weight that
applies to both adult men and women. Your BMI measures your height/weight ratio.
Just divide your weight in kilograms by the square of your height in meters. Morbid obesity is
defined as at least 100 pounds overweight, with a BMI greater than 40.
BMI is a measure of your general health and is based on your height and weight ratio. If your
BMI is high, you may have an increased risk of developing certain diseases including:
high blood pressure
high cholesterol and blood lipids (LDL)
Type 2 Diabetes
gastroesophageal reflux (GERD)
urinary stress incontinence
The focus on BMI is important but can turn into a negative setting tone in a person’s overall
quest for god health. There are many factors that will affect a person’s BMI but overall it is their
age and their overall weight. It’s interesting to note that most people can honestly look in the
mirror and determine whether or not they have to lose weight or if they are at a healthy weight.
Be honest with yourself and do a personal body assessment to determine what your next step has
to be. If you have pounds to lose then your BMI isn’t where it should be. If that is the case then
get into a consistent movement/exercise program to get you on the right track.
Blood Pressure/Weight Measurements:
According to the latest generic statistics provided by Harvard Medical School the following
calculations can be used to describe Males and Females weight in lbs and blood pressures in
mmHg who have an average age of 18/19/20/21 years
Males: 19 years old: 2.19 lbs/inch in height
Males: 20 years old: 2.22 lbs/inch in height
Males: 21 years old: 2.25 lbs/inch in height
Females: 18 years old: 1.95 lbs/inch in height
Females: 19 years old: 1.96 lbs/inch in height
Females: 20 years old: 1.99 lbs/inch in height
Average generic blood pressure measurements for American males/females in the 18 – 24
year old category is 120/79 mmHg or Mean Arterial Pressure of 92.2 – 93.2 mmHg
Data Sheets and Scatter Plot Templates Are On The Following Pages:
Please complete the instructions located in the “Conclusion Section” at the
end of this handout.
Table 3: DEMOGRAPHICS (DSL 200 G)
Age = Years
Weight = pounds
Height = inches
TABLE 4: Experimental Results (DSL 200 G)
Blood Pressure/Heart Rate
BP 1 HR BP 2 HR BP 3 HR Avg. Avg.Mean (Omron) Fat %
*BP measured in mmHg
To calculate mean arterial pressure use the following equation:
Calculate for each BP trial then calculate the Avg. of all three.
MAP = SBP + 2 (DBP): where MAP = mean arterial pressure;
SBP = systolic blood pressure (Higher #)
DBP = diastolic blood pressure (Lower #)
Scatter Plot Graph BMI (Electronic Calculation)
Instructions: Using this template you are to plot each participant’s electronically calculated
BMI and connect the dots on the graph that follows.
GRAPH 1: Scatter Plot Distribution Student BMI Values: Electronic
DSL 200 G:
Scatter Plot: Body Fat % Distribution
Instructions: Using this template you are to plot each participant’s body fat percentage and
connect the dots on the graph that follows.
GRAPH 2: Scatter Plot Distribution Student Body Fat Percentage
Body Fat %
BODY FAT % DISTRIBUTION
Scatter Plot: Average Blood Pressure Distribution
Instructions: Using this template you are to plot each participant’s blood
GRAPH 3: Scatter Plot Distribution Student Blood Pressure Distribution
Control Data: Source is National Institutes of Health (NIH)
1) Average Blood Pressure for M/F age 18 – 24 = 120/79
(MAP = 92.2 – 93.2) mmHg)
2) Average Body Mass Index for M/F age 18 – 24:
Female = 27.5
3) Average Body Fat %:
Female = 35.3
Please complete the questions which appear below and include them in your
In this section you are to comment on the data for each of the graphs that you completed.
E.g. %’s are based on the students for your class.
1) What % of students with respect to Body Fat are “Lean”; “Ideal”; “Average”; “Above
2) What % of students fall into the following categories for Electronic BMI:
“Underweight”; “Normal Weight”; “Overweight”; “Obese”
3) What % of students have “Below Normal” blood pressure; “Normal” blood pressure
and “Above Normal” blood pressures respectively?
4) Which of the data points collected will be used to determine whether or not the
Hypothesis was supported?
5) What if any conclusions can be drawn between the relationship of BMI and Blood
Pressure? Was your hypothesis proven to be correct based on the data?