Northeastern University Following Crime Film by Christopher Nolan Discussion

Final Paper OverviewOver the course of the semester, you will research and write an
approximately 4000-4500-word essay on how a popular text from the
past (e.g., book/book series, movie/movie series, TV series) would or
would not change if the characters had one or more of today’s mobile
communication technologies (e.g., smartphone, Apple Watch, Snapchat).
For example, imagine if Romeo and Juliet had smartphones? You would
write a paper citing relevant academic research on mobile phones, apps,
and devices as evidence for how the story of Romeo and Juliet might be
altered. You would also use your discussion about Romeo and Juliet to
make a bigger point about mobile communication. In your paper, your
argument will be based on evidence from published social scientific
research in peer-reviewed journals, and your essay will reflect mastery
over a topic of your choosing regarding mobile communication and its
relationship to society, culture, and/or politics. Think of this paper as a
mix between a communication studies literature review and an English
or film class paper. In preparation for the final paper, you will turn in 2
shorter written assignments—a proposal and an annotated bibliography.
For each assignment, anonymized samples from students in prior classes
have been posted to Canvas.

In order to identify academic journals (and find relevant articles),
you will need to start by doing a preliminary literature search. We
will review how to find and evaluate high quality research
literature in class. I’m also more than happy to make suggestions if
you make an office hours appointment with me.

The more literature you read (or the lack of literature you find), the
more likely you will make small adjustments to the scope of your
topic. This is a good thing to do early on because it also allows you
to make more targeted recommendations in your final paper.
Throughout the semester, you have worked on developing expertise in a
topic related to mobile communication through creatively critiquing and
reimagining a text from popular culture, grounding your analysis in
research evidence. In your Annotated Bibliography, you identified,
summarized, and critiqued research evidence in a specific body of
literature. For your Final Paper, you will incorporate previous
assignments and feedback, and prepare a paper that consists of the
following components:
1. Title Page
2. Introduction
3. Body
4. Conclusion
5. References
1. Title Page
• On the Title Page, please include a) your name, b) a title for your
paper, and c) a word count (excluding References).
2. Introduction (~500 words)

Identifies your chosen popular culture text from the past

Provides initial overview of the text’s main plot, premise, and if
relevant, impact on popular culture

Identifies why this text deserves/is well suited for adaptation

Identifies the mobile communication technology/s chosen to
reinterpret the text

Includes a thesis that:
o Makes clear what would and would not change if the characters had
one or more of today’s mobile communication technologies (i.e., not
everything about the text need be changed radically)
o Makes a broader argument about mobile communication and its
relationship to society, culture, and/or politics (incorporating relevant
themes, theories, and/or concepts from the course)
3. Body (~3000-3500 words)

o Organize your review by common themes (e.g., similar
methodological or theoretical approaches, psychological effects,
types of social media, etc.), and arrange them such that your
Literature Review builds logically from beginning to end.

Research Literature
o Overall, your paper should incorporate at least fifteen (15) academic
journal articles, book
chapters, or books. You may spread these 15 across the Introduction,
Body, and Conclusion. o Do not take up too much space providing
every detail of the cited literature, only the most
relevant aspects to that part of the argument.
• Adaptation
o Provides: Specific details about the text (e.g., plot points, lines of
dialogue); Evidence of “close
reading”; Obvious connection between text, thesis, and citations.
o Highlights any similar technologies used by characters in the text;
Compares and contrasts
these with the affordances of your chosen mobile technology/s.
o Body of paper is structured (with headings) into key sections; Each
section builds on top of the
other to argue your thesis.
• Media
o Incorporates at least three (3) images/video that advance the paper’s
o Image/video are not self-explanatory; Full explanation provided
*and* incorporated in the body
of the essay (e.g., “In Figure 1…); Includes caption for photo.
o Caption includes a citation (if you found the media on a website or
took a screengrab from a
movie/TV show). If you made the media (e.g., a pretend screenshot of
conversation), note that in the caption.
4. Conclusion (~250-500 words)

Reiterates thesis and summarizes body.

Describes broader questions/ideas the essay was intended to
provoke; Explains why people who
study mobile media and communication technologies should care
(even if they aren’t intimately familiar with your chosen popular
culture text).
5. References
• Should list at least 15 scholarly sources in APA format. You may also
cite non-scholarly articles in your Introduction to establish popular
conceptions about your topic.
Technical and Content Requirements
Your paper must be in the format of Microsoft Word (not a PDF).

Your paper must be prepared in APA 7th Edition style.

Your paper will be about 4000-4500 words (excluding
References). If I suspect you are
running very long or short, I will check the word count myself.

Include a word count on the Title Page.

Papers should be double spaced, 12-point font, Times New Roman,
and 1-inch margins (not
including the Title Page or References).

Please include page numbers.

All claims and information from outside sources must be cited.

References used as evidence must be from scholarly sources.

The work should have no spelling errors and no egregious
grammatical errors.

An introduction that identifies your topic, establishes its
significance, and provides
appropriate recognition of how the scholarly literature connects/
disconnects from your text, and
states a thesis that is clear and reasonable.

A body that includes:
o Discussion of existing literature that is in-depth, useful, and used to
clearly support the thesis.
o Specific details about text chosen to adapt; Obvious connections
between text, thesis, citations. Highlights any similar technologies used
by characters. Compares & contrasts these with affordances of chosen
mobile technology.
o At least three images and/or videos to further support the argument.

A conclusion that accurately summarizes themes from the research
literature and uses these themes to support the thesis.

A list of references that provide at least 15 high-quality scholarly
sources that are coherently
related and connected to your thesis.
Final Paper Student: Grade:
Grading Rubric (150 Points)
Criteria Expert (A)
Pro cient (B)
Competent (C)
Emerging (D)
Topic is tightly
Topic is
Topic is too broad Topic is not clearly
focused and its
for the scope of this defined; its
tion (10
focused but its
significance is not
Significance is
established. The
Points: persuasively
established. Thesis somewhat unclear. discussed in a vague thesis is not
focused, of
is of
and/or the
of is
Cursory and/or
Literatu is
existing literature is existing literature is existing literature
irrelevant discussion
re (40
Points) in- depth, useful and useful, but
neglects pertinent
of existing
Points: used to clearly
occasionally lacks literature, or content literature.
support the
thesis. Lack
runs specific
details Little to no specific
details about text.
details about text.
about text. Weak
details about text.
Obvious connection Loose connection
connection between No connection
on (40
between text, thesis, between text, thesis, text, thesis,
between text, thesis,
citations. Little
citations. No
Points: citations. Highlights citations. Misses
any similar
opportunities to
discussion of similar discussion of similar
technologies used
discuss similar
technologies used
technologies used
Essay includes at
Essay includes at
Essay include less by
uses too little
least three images
least three images
than three images
media and/or media
Points) and/or videos to
and/or videos, but and/or videos.
is irrelevant to the
Points: further support the connection to the
Connection to the
argument is weak
argument is contains
weak or Conclusion is
some inaccuracies missing and/or fails
on (10
summarizes themes summarizes themes or
to substantively
from the research
overgeneralizations connect to the rest
Points: from the research
literature and uses literature but the
about the research of the paper.
these themes to
connection to the
At least 15 relevant At least 15 relevant Fewer than 15
Paper uses few
and scholarly
and scholarly
relevant and
sources and/or
sources are used.
sources are used.
scholarly sources
sources are
Ideas are
Some ideas lack
are used. Many
substantiated by
ideas are introduced
or Use of APA Style
used, but
consistently and
consistently applied numerous errors
not evident.
accurately applied throughout paper
and/or one or more Marked by
throughout paper.
with minor errors. major formatting
Precise use of
Generally correct
elements missing. stylistic choices.
use of terms.
Word usage errors. Poor use of
Effective and
Appropriate, but not Spelling and/or
appropriate style.
very effective style. grammar mistakes Spelling and/or
No spelling and/or Minimal spelling
grammar mistakes
grammar mistakes; and/or grammar
obscure meaning.
frequently obscure
paper flows easily mistakes. Paper
Paper disjointed in meaning. The paper
from one idea to the flows with only
several places. Is
does not flow and
Zhou 1
Xingyu (Valentina) Zhou
Mobile Communication
Final Paper Proposal
10 March 202210 March 2022
Social Media Use and Loneliness
My chosen media is Christopher Nolan’s thriller film Following, directed in 1998. In the
movie, the main protagonist is unemployed writer Bill, who starts to follow random strangers on
the streets of London. He uses this practice as a form of entertainment as well as an inspiration
for his writings. During these activities, he follows a man called Cobb. Cobb invites the main
hero to accompany him in burglaries. Through the movie, Bill meets a few other criminals and
participates in a variety of violent, illegal, and even mystical activities. Criminals frame him and
used him as an instrument in achieving their goals.
The mobile communication technologies that I have chosen to focus on in this paper are
mobile social media and dating apps. The problem of young and naïve Bill was his loneliness
and inability to socialize effectively, to create a company and fruitful leisure, so he decides to
follow other people. However, if Bill lived in our time, he could easily follow interesting
peoples’ lives on Instagram or Facebook, could make new acquaintances through Tinder or
Bumble, and he would be able to communicate with others on imageboards or Reddit. Mobile
internet technologies would give him safe ways of communicating, keep him away from the
criminal world, and, probably, would let him establish a connection with people like him in term
of lifestyle, behavior, and psychology.
Zhou 2
The research on academic sources would be focused on topics of the interconnection of
loneliness and social media. Such journals as The Social Science Journal, Computers in Human
Behaviour, Cyberpsychology, Behaviour, and Social Networking will be useful.
Zhou 3
COMM 3200
Final Paper Proposal
March 20, 2019
Mobile Smartphones Are So Very
Heathers is a 1989 cult classic that uses dark humor to cover pressing topics such as teen
suicide, terrorism, and social hierarchies. Starring Winona Ryder and Christian Slater, the film
tells the story of the three most popular girls at Westerburg High School, all by the name of
Heather. “The Heathers,” who are both loathed and feared by the entire student body, decide to
recruit a new member to their impenetrable clique: Veronica Sawyer. However, when Veronica
begins dating rebellious outcast, J.D, he helps her escape the grasp of the Heathers by plotting to
kill the most popular kids in school.
The mobile technology I am choosing to introduce to the movie, Heathers, is the mobile
smartphone, specifically iPhones. In Heathers, the social hierarchy is affected by interpersonal
relationships, bullying, death, and self-esteem. Through my research, I explore the impact that
texting and mobile social media use (Instagram, Facebook) in Heathers would have on
interpersonal relationships, bullying, death, and self-esteem, and ultimately, how that affects the
social hierarchy.
One way mobile smartphones would significantly alter the race for power in Heathers is
that students would establish relationships and cliques through texting and social media. For
example, the Heathers would all post a picture of themselves with Veronica on their public
profiles after she was inducted into their clique in order to alert the entire student body. They
would also add Veronica into their already established iMessage group chat.
Commented [MOU1]: Hehe! Missed this the first time J
The impact that texting and social media use has on forming social hierarchies through
interpersonal relationships, bullying, suicide, and self-esteem.
Additionally, social media apps would help the Heathers maintain the school’s social
hierarchy by means of exercising their power through cyberbullying. Social media apps would
also provide insight to student’s mental health, as J.D. might drop hints on social media before
attempting to kill the popular students and set off a bomb in the school.
In order to find pertinent research that provides evidence for my argument, I will examine
research in academic journals, such as New Media & Society, Mobile Media and
Communication, and Journal of School Violence. These articles will support the study’s main
theme of how mobile relational maintenance among friend groups, cyberbullying, and selfesteem affect social hierarchies.
Commented [MOU2]: Meant to be part of a paragraph?
COMM 3200
Annotated Bibliography
March 20, 2019
Source 1:
Albert, D., Chein, J., & Steinberg, L. (2013). The teenage brain: Peer influences on adolescent
decision making. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22(2), 114-120.
Albert et al. explore the idea that the company of other teenagers alters adolescent
Deleted: T
Deleted: B
Deleted: I
Deleted: A
Commented [MOU3]: Super close to APA. The only
thing to change is that the titles of article and books are
in sentence case.
Deleted: D
Deleted: M
decision making and risk taking. Adolescents usually commit delinquent acts in groups, and risk
taking individuals normally gravitate towards each other. Because adolescents are more
susceptible than adults or children, the presence of others creates a reward-sensitive motivational
state and individuals might not be able to control impulsive, risky behavior.
In order to benefit my area of research, this study needs to be supplemented with an
Commented [MOU4]: Good.
article that examines peer pressure, decision making, and conformity on social media.
Additionally, on social media, there is an overwhelming presence of other students that can
influence an individual to take part in risky behavior. The presented information in this article
can aid my argument because it focuses on teen decision making and risky behavior, which is
seen in Heathers as students attempt to tear down the social hierarchy. My area of research will
benefit from this study, supplemented by an article on decision making in social media and
mobile phone use.
Commented [MOU5]: A bit repetitive here with what
you’ve said above.
Source 2:
Alexander, J., & Wallett, A. (2010). Mobile Phones, Suicide and Prognostication. Australian &
New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 44(10), 958-959. doi:10.3109/00048674.2010.509312
In this study, the author investigates that an increasing number of people who attempt
suicide have used their mobile phones to write and send their suicide notes. The article gives
several examples of people who sent friends and family members a suicide note via text before
attempting to kill themselves. Due to the affordance of availability, texting reaches individuals
immediately. Therefore, all of the suicide notes were received instantly and the attempted
suicides were botched.
A key strength in this article was the ability of the author to describe specific instances
where people used the texting feature on their mobile phones to write up and send their suicide
note. However, this study was limited in the amount of information and detail it provided. The
author poses the question of perceived severity when it comes to suicide and briefly touches
upon how this contributes to a person’s needed psychiatric attention.
Although this article is limited on information and depth, it is relevant to my own
research because it provides proof that some mobile phones are being used to write suicide notes.
Writing suicide notes is a major theme in Heathers, and this article can contribute to how mobile
phones will alter the text of Heathers.
Source 3:
Bond, E. (2010). Managing mobile relationships: Children’s perceptions of the impact of the
mobile phone on relationships in their everyday lives. Childhood, 17(4), 514-529.
This article highlights the importance of mobile phones in friendships and construction of
identity, while also revealing the centrality of risk. The authors conducted interviews with
Deleted: study
middle and high school students. Data was collected regarding the students’ interactions with
their phones, and the ways in which their mobile devices helped them maintain friendships
and/or facilitated bullying. Some young people highlighted that without mobile phones, they
would have no friends. Others admitted to sending nasty messages over text, and that they
Commented [MOU6]: Age? Unclear from your
annotation if these are also high school-age students
(which would be more applicable to Heathers than
younger kids.)
become angry if someone did not respond to a text or phone call in a timely fashion. Because
mobile phones have become a part of everyday life, they provide connections, security, and
reassurance, while simultaneously provoking bullying and potentially damaging friendships and
other relationships.
A strength of the article was the ability to point out that mobile phones have many
advantages and disadvantages for middle and high school students, such as providing students
with a means to create deeper connections with friends, but at the same time, serving as a tool for
bullying. Another strength and area of deeper research is that the article touches on the effect of
gender roles on mobile communication uses. The article’s key strengths are relevant to my main
argument, as I am examining how the capabilities of mobile phones can be a double edged sword
among interpersonal relationships, specifically among a group of high school, female friends.
Commented [MOU7]: Good. You may wish to explore
gender more deeply in your final paper.
Source 4:
Cohen, K., Johansson, F., Kaati, L., & Mork, J. C. (2013). Detecting Linguistic Markers for
Radical Violence in Social Media. Terrorism and Political Violence, 26(1), 246-256.
The key focus of the article is that the capability threshold for lone wolf terrorists to carry
out attacks is becoming lower due to the power of the Internet to bring forward certain
Commented [MOU8]: This annotation starts off a little
jargon-y. Would have loved to have read this a bit more
in your own words.
information. Therefore, the Internet is used by lone wolf terrorists to spread their views and hint
at an attack before actually carrying it out.
The article discusses tracing these behavioral markers for radical violence in social media
text. They suggest doing this by labeling three items: a warning behaviors that predict an attack,
a preoccupation with the intended target, and a warrior mentality that identifies with radical
action or radical people.
A key strength of this article is that it covers the types of social media content lone wolf
terrorists may post before carrying out an attack. In Heathers, the character of JD can easily be
described as a lone wolf terrorist. This article provides insight into how his actions would change
with the help of social media, and how those actions are related to the social hierarchy. Although
this idea would address my own topic of investigation, this article would need to be
supplemented with another study on the relation between social media posts, cyberbullying, and
school shootings/terrorist attacks. A limitation of this article that relates directly to my study is
that it focuses on the ability to monitor and catch lone wolf terrorist language, instead of
providing more information and examples on the online language and consequent behaviors of
lone wolf terrorists.
Commented [MOU9]: Another limitation, for this class
at least, is that it doesn’t focus on mobile media. How
are phones central at all to this study?
Source 5:
Cui, D. (2015). Beyond “connected presence”: Multimedia mobile instant messaging in close
relationship management. Mobile Media & Communication, 4(1), 19-36.
The author explores the patterns of mobile instant messaging interaction in the
management of close relationships among young individuals. The author proposes that mobile
communication gives rise to a connected presence in close relationships, as it enables more
frequent expressions of emotion and emotional state. On-the-go connections help to expand
Deleted: s
social networks, build closer friendships, and even define group boundaries. In times of crisis,
Commented [MOU10]: Could use a bit of proofreading
here in this paragraph when it comes to verb/noun
agreement (e.g., singular, plural).
instant messages serve an important role in communicating solutions and providing
The study sufficiently explains how the use of mobile communication deepens and
enriches relationships, especially friendships. This is beneficial to my research because it
provides a deeper understanding of the way in which mobile communication affects the
characters experiences and self-esteem in Heathers. For example, the capability to seek
sympathy anytime of the day through mobile communication can enhance one’s self-esteem and
happiness. The Heathers could use their phones to seek out opinions and emotions, which
strengthens their bond. On the other hand, a limitation of this article, is that it focused on a niche,
privileged sample of young individuals.
Deleted: ing
Deleted: s
Source 6:
Décieux, J. P., Heinen, A., & Willems, H. (2018). Social Media and Its Role in Friendshipdriven Interactions among Young People: A Mixed Methods Study. Young, 27(1), 18-31.
The focus of the study is friendship-driven social media interactions among young
people. It investigates the role of social media for social interactions, and highlights that patterns
of interactions between young people changed due to social media. Youth social media activity
replicates existing offline friendship practices, such as gossiping or sharing personal stories, and
creates new opportunities for availability and shared experiences. The article finds a strong
relationship between young people’s online and offline activities and friendships.
This article is successful because it proposes that friendship interactions can be
interpreted as mixed modalities, meaning offline and online friendship interactions complement
and extend each other. However, some limitations of the study are that only a small sample of
youth in Luxembourg were interviewed and that neither take into account how diverse social
media can be.
The focus on friendship-driven social media interaction in this article is relevant to my
own research because it shows that social media and mobile technologies complement and drive
the maintenance of friendships among high school students. This research will help show how
the characters in Heathers use mobile technologies to complement and enhance the social
interactions among friends they were already having. However, as the article states, it would
need to be supplemented with research on specific problems relating to online interactions (i.e.,
cyberbullying) in order to fully address my argument.
Commented [MOU11]: Mobile?
Source 7:
Hall, J. A., & Baym, N. K. (2011). Calling and texting (too much): Mobile maintenance
expectations, (over)dependence, entrapment, and friendship satisfaction. New Media &
Society, 14(2), 316-331. doi:10.1177/1461444811415047
In this article, the author explores how mobile phone use in close friendships affects
relational satisfaction, expectations, and dependence. The author uses key terms of dialectical
theory, perpetual contact, and friendship expectations through mobile relational maintenance to
prove that mobile phones contribute to the maintenance of friendships among young people.
Using these terms, the main argument the author presents is that mobile phones have become
indispensable yet useful relational maintenance devices that people rely on to make plans, share
feelings, and validate and include others.
However, these relational maintenance devices are also a source of tension, as the
expectations of friends to constantly inform, share, and maintain relationships through their
phones can lead to feelings of confinement. Under this main argument, the author discusses that
relationships are an ongoing collaborative process which help friendships become more
integrated through certain mobile expectations.
Of most significant in this research is the idea that a device’s ability to offer continuous
communication increases greater expectations and dependence, which increases relational
satisfaction. Yet, greater expectations also lead to a sense of overdependence, which reduces
relational satisfaction. The article excels in examining both the positive effects and detriments of
maintaining relationships through mobile phone use. It also excels in first highlighting how
dependent young people are on their phones, before exploring these concepts on a deeper level.
Commented [MOU12]: Super long annotation here. The
length of the summary should be cut in half.
However, there are some limitations to the study. The study focuses on friendships
between young American college students, neglecting to consider samples from different age
groups, nations, and types of relationships. The study also does not consider the nonverbal
mobile factors of friendship, such as personalized ringtones, or that some friends prefer to use
voice calls or email over texting.
This research is relevant to my own focus because it demonstrates that mobile phone use
among young students affects relational satisfaction in positive and negative ways. This will
highlight how mobile phones would alter the movie Heathers, since the Heathers would use
texting to maintain their friendship, seemingly untouchable social clique, and fragile popularity.
Source 8:
Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2018). Connecting Adolescent Suicide to the Severity of Bullying
and Cyberbullying. Journal of School Violence, 1-14. doi:10.1080/15388220.2018.1492417
The main focus of this article is to measure the association between school bullying,
cyberbullying, and suicide among middle and high school students in the United States. The
author highlights that often targets have no escape from bullying when they are not only
mistreated at school, but online as well. The author also argues that bullying and cyberbullying
contribute to maladaptive emotional, behavioral, and psychological issues, which include
problems such as anger and self-pity. The last main argument the author makes is that
cyberbullying victimization is more strongly related to suicidal behaviors than bullying at school.
The key contribution of this research is that middle and high school students who
experience any type of bullying were more likely to report suicidal ideation. Additionally, when
students experience both forms of bullying, the impact is amplified and the likelihood of suicidal
ideation increases. However, taking limitations into consideration, the article states that is it
impossible to conclude that bullying and cyberbullying causes an individual to commit suicide.
Additionally, experience with cyberbullying and suicidal thoughts may be underreported among
students. Recall bias may also occur while students are relaying their bullying experiences,
meaning that they have a tendency to misrepresent facts from a previous time period.
The focus in this article is relevant to my own research because it highlights the
detrimental effects of experiencing both in-school bullying and cyberbullying. With the addition
of mobile devices into Heathers, the students who are already being bullied in-school would also
most likely be bullied outside of school, online. In order for this article to fully address my own
topic, I would have to combine it with a study that focuses more on social hierarchies and the
direct, negative psychological effects and actions of students who have been cyberbullied, rather
than just the association between bullying and reporting suicidal behaviors.
Source 9:
Lup, K., Trub, L., & Rosenthal, L. (2015). Instagram #Instasad?: Exploring Associations Among
Instagram Use, Depressive Symptoms, Negative Social Comparison, and Strangers
Followed. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 18(5), 247-252.
This study is unique, as it is the first study to examine the association of depressive
symptoms, self-esteem, and Instagram use. The article compared already established information
about the relationship between Facebook and self-esteem to Instagram’s capabilities. Focusing
on comparison to others on Instagram, the study pointed out that the image-driven nature of the
Commented [MOU13]: You’re missing some connection
between the research in this article and mobile media
specifically. You’ll need this to strengthen any
argument about how mobile devices would/wouldn’t
alter the movie.
app encourages the presentation of the most positive parts of someone’s life. Instagram fosters
more positive situations, while Facebook allows for more negative statuses to be posted.
A major benefit of the article regarding my own research is that it focused on the specific
apps of Facebook and Instagram, and how their capabilities affect users’ moods and self-esteem.
This can be related to Heathers because can explain how using Instagram affects the depressive
behaviors of the characters. However, both a strength and limitation of this article was that it is
the first study to examine Instagram use with psychological constructs. The article provides
insight into the app, but can grow in many different ways once more evidence is obtained about
Instagram’s relation to self-esteem and depressive symptoms.
Commented [MOU14]: This is a great study, and good
for your paper in that this is mobile-centric. More of
Source 10:
Throuvala, M. A., Griffiths, M. D., Rennoldson, M., & Kuss, D. J. (2019). Motivational
processes and dysfunctional mechanisms of social media use among adolescents: A
qualitative focus group study. Computers in Human Behavior, 93, 164-175.
This study focuses on social media and how it facilitates friendship formation, fosters
youth development, and provides social supports. The author explores the process that relates
social media use and motivations to social relationship formation, mood regulation, and
conforming to social norms. Throuvala et al. also explore how maladaptive psychological states
are related to the motivations of youth through the lens of mobile media use. The three main
areas of focus are social media with values, motivations for social media use, and social media
app use. The author connects these three main themes to the specific apps of Instagram,
Commented [MOU15]: I hadn’t seen this one yet—
gonna read! Thanks!
Facebook, Twitter, and Snapchat in order to explore how a young people’s motivations differ by
Commented [MOU16]: Good.
An area of strength in the article is that it provides specific examples and behaviors
involving social media use among young students. It also explores how the themes of control,
dominance, confidence, and comparison are used on social media by students. Regarding my
own research, this can demonstrate how the Heathers and other students at Westerberg High use
social media to establish, build, and break down the high school’s social hierarchy. A limitation
of this article, however, is that the sample could have been larger and more diverse. Additionally,
a limitation and area of future research would be to expand upon problematic smartphone and
social media use, examining how motivations can be detrimental to the behavior of certain
Source 11:
Valkenburg, P. M., Peter, J., & Schouten, A. P. (2006). Friend Networking Sites and Their
Relationship to Adolescents Well-Being and Social Self-Esteem. CyberPsychology &
Behavior,9(5), 584-590. doi:10.1089/cpb.2006.9.584
The goal of this study is to discover the effects of friend networking sites for adolescents’
self-esteem and wellbeing. Peer acceptance and feedback are important features of friend
networking sites, as well as important predictors of social self-esteem. The study found that self
esteem was affected by the tone of feedback that young people received on their profiles.
Additionally, it was found that the quality of relationships formed on social networking sites is a
stronger predictor of social adjustment and effects on self-esteem than the number of
relationships formed on such sites.
Commented [MOU17]: You only needed 10 for the
annotated bibliography, but you need 15 academic
sources for the final paper, so you’re almost there J
Commented [MOU18]: This article is pre-smartphones.
Think about how there might be a more current paper
that more specifically relates to mobile social media.
A key concept of this article was “friend networking sites.” These sites are used more for
communication between users rather than information seeking. This concept will strengthen my
research because it investigates the platform for mobile relational maintenance and aids in
describing how students maintain a social hierarchy based on the manipulation of self-esteem
through mobile technology.
This article will need to be supplemented by research on social hierarchies and how
negative interactions on friend networking sites affect the social order. Furthermore, a limitation
of this article is that it does not look into the ways in which students with negative feedback can
optimize their online social presence.
Source 12:
Weinstein, E. (2018). The social media see-saw: Positive and negative influences on adolescents’
affective well-being. New Media & Society, 20(10), 3597-3623.
The author presents an overview of positive and negative social media influences on the
wellbeing of adolescents. Stressing that social media is a part of everyday life for teenagers, the
experiences that students have on social media are affected by their interactions. Social media
influences can be seen as a see-saw. On one hand, the sites strengthen relationships and friend
groups. On the other hand, social media can be used to tear people down and contribute to
anxiety and depressive behaviors. The article explores several apps, such as Instagram, Snapchat,
and Facebook, and how the capabilities of those apps provide opportunities for judgements,
disconnection, and envy, as well as closeness, admiration, and affirmation.
Commented [MOU19]: Good.
Of most significant of this research is the array of feelings that social media interactions
can foster. Examples the article presented, such as using Snapchat stories to purposefully show
that someone is being left out of a friend group, relates to my field of study because it
demonstrates how these apps can be used to break down and build up self-esteem and social
hierarchies. One limitation of this article is that it focuses on a homogenous group of students
from the same geographical area.
Lovely work. Your writing is clear, and each of your annotations does a good job thoroughly
covering all of the aspects of summary, assessment, and reflection. I left some notes in the
comments about making sure that you supplement any non-mobile focused research with
something additionally mobile (e.g., the research on “lone wolves” and social media.) You may
also want to explore gender even more deeply in your final paper (and find additional research
that will allow you to do that.) I’m looking forward to reading more!
Best, MA
Grade: 62/65
Formatted: Indent: First line: 0″

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