Psychology article

Question 1.

Psychology papers are divided into six sections.  The first section is the Abstract, which appears in this paper as the paragraph below the title.  The Abstract is a summary of the entire paper, and is probably familiar to you.  Most students, when told to write a paper, will use Google Scholar or some other search engine to find sources; the Abstract is usually what comes up in the search.  But the details of the paper are in the other sections.  The second section of a psychology paper is the Introduction; that’s the part that starts below the Keywords, and runs through the Method section.   The idea behind the introduction is to summarize OTHER papers that are about the same topic as THIS one you’re reading now.  THIS paper is about whether teens who see themselves as overweight are at risk for becoming obese, so it summarizes papers on both those topics.  One of the critical distinctions researchers on obesity make is the difference between “healthy” or “typical” weight loss behaviors and “unhealthy” or “extreme” weight loss behaviors.  Looking just at the Introduction section, tell me which weight loss behaviors are “healthy” and which are “unhealthy” (hint: the writers might not use those exact words to describe the behaviors!). 

Question 2.

The Method section of the paper (everything between the Methodand Resultsheadings) explains all the technical details that went in to deciding what to do – and not do – in the study.  You will often find lists of equipment used, ranging from “pencil and paper” to “this specific computer model, set in a dark room, on a desk 35.6 inches high.”    You’ll also usually find the details on the participants here: the total number of participants, the gender or sex breakdown, and the average age in years (this particular study gives you a handy table with additional “demographic” variables).  This section of the paper will also explain any important variables used in the study: how the information was collected, how the variable was computed, and (in some cases) a source article from which the variable was taken.In the present study, the variable you see over and over is BMI.  For this question, explain what BMI is: what does it stand for, how was it computed, when was it computed?  Once you’ve answered all those questions, consider this – do the authors ever actually explain what BMI really is, or do they just seem to presume you, the reader, already know?

Question 3.

The Results section of the paper (which goes from that heading to the heading Discussion or Conclusion) is the place where the authors are supposed to explain all of the statistics they conducted in the study.  Statistics are something you learn about in more advanced classes – and when you read this Results section, I bet you noticed that it didn’t look much like English!  Effects were ‘independent’ or ‘moderated,’ and so on.  I point this out to you to show you one “trap” that students often fall into when writing papers in other classes.  Most of us have learned through high school to “paraphrase” from our sources – copy sentences or sections, and change some of the words to synonyms.  This is actually a form of plagiarism, but more importantly, it will get you into trouble when you do so with science papers – because you never know which words are just words, and which refer to complex statistical techniques (you might have been suspicious that ‘moderated’ was a technical term, but it probably never occurred to you that ‘independent’ could be a technical term for a particular type of statistic!).  But just because the section is hard to read, that doesn’t mean you can’t learn from it.  Look at Table 2, on the top of page 509.  Any statistic in the table that has an asterisk ( * ) next to it is “significant,” meaning that this variable is “related to” risk of obesity in adulthood.  The critical variable in the table is the bottom one, Misperception of being overweight – women have a score of 1.29, and men have a score of 1.89, with an asterisk next to both.  As it said in the Abstract, this statistic tells us that for both men and women, if you wrongly thought you were overweight when you were an adolescent, you are at increased risk of actually being obese when you’re an adult.  The higher the statistic is than 1, the greater your risk, so men (1.89) have a greater risk than do women (1.29).  For this question, tell me two things about the table, and then see if you can guess one other.  A) Look at the Race and Ethnicity entries, to see which statistics have asterisks next to them.  For women, only one race/ethnicity has an increased risk of obesity in adulthood: which one is it?  (Literally, the translation is “if you are a woman of race/ethnicity ____ who wrongly thought she was overweight as an adolescent, you are at increased risk of obesity in adulthood.”)  B)  For men, only one race/ethnicity has an increased risk of obesity in adulthood: which one is it?  (Again, literally the translation is “if you are a man of race/ethnicity ___ who wrongly thought he was overweight as an adolescent, you are at increased risk of obesity in adulthood.”)C)  Look at the row marked Education.  What do you think that asterisk next to a statistic that is LOWER than 1 means? (see if you can guess, from what you’ve just done and what I’ve written above.)

Question 4.

The Discussion section of the paper should include three things.  First, the authors summarize their findings, but with words (not statistics!).  Second, the authors “place” their findings in with current theory or practice in the field.  Third, the authors are supposed to list any limitations in their study.  For this question, tell me the two ways the authors “place” their research into current theory.  [hint: one of the two is in the paragraph that starts “This research also suggests that the population …”]Question 5.  It is probably impossible to conduct a “perfect” research study; there are limitations to everything.  One of the limitations of this paper is that the authors use BMI to measure whether or not participants were overweight/obese.  Many, many studies have shown that BMI can be a very inaccurate measure of overweight/obesity.  For example, football players and weightlifting enthusiasts tend to pack on muscle, which weighs more by volume than does fat.  A 6’ tall man weighing 210 pounds and a 5’6” woman weighing 180 pounds who are “cut” like professional body builders would show up as “obese” using BMI, even with their tiny waist lines.  Yet the authors of this paper don’t mention that BMI can be a bad measure of obesity!

Do you see any limitations listed anywhere in the Discussion section?  If so, what are they? [note: do NOT make guesses or use your opinion – tell me only what weaknesses the authors say there are in this paper.]

the assignment is to read that article, and to answer the following questions to the best. Do not copy the work of anyone else, or share the work you do. assignments is stored electronically, and will be checked for plagiarism. Use complete sentences, and write in paragraph form. citation is required if necessary.

5 questions each have multi questions just check the hidden questions in the paragraphs.

PSSXXX10.1177/0956797614566319Sutin, TerraccianoMisperceived Weight and Incident Obesity
Research Report
Body Weight Misperception in
Adolescence and Incident Obesity in
Young Adulthood
Psychological Science
2015, Vol. 26(4) 507­–511
© The Author(s) 2015
Reprints and permissions:
DOI: 10.1177/0956797614566319
Angelina R. Sutin and Antonio Terracciano
Florida State University College of Medicine
Misperceptions of one’s weight are common in adolescence. Adolescents of normal weight who misperceive themselves
as being overweight tend to engage in unhealthy dieting practices and behaviors that are conducive to obesity. To
examine whether this misperception is associated with a risk of obesity during early adulthood, we analyzed data
from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6,523; mean age at baseline = 16 years; 58% female).
Adolescents who misperceived themselves as being overweight had greater odds of becoming obese over the 12-year
follow-up period than adolescents who perceived their weight accurately (odds ratio = 1.41, 95% confidence interval =
[1.22, 1.64]). Although the increase in the odds associated with misperception of weight was apparent for both sexes,
it was significantly stronger among boys (1.89 greater odds) than among girls (1.29 greater odds). The present research
indicates that weight-based self-stigmatization, much like weight-based social stigmatization, is a powerful risk factor
for incident obesity. This finding underscores the importance of addressing inaccurate body weight perceptions, even
among adolescents of normal weight.
misperceived weight, incident obesity, adolescent health, weight gain, misperceived overweight
Received 10/28/14; Revision accepted 12/8/14
It is not uncommon for people to have inaccurate perceptions of their weight, especially during adolescence.
Many adolescents of normal weight, for example, misperceive themselves as being overweight (Quick et al., 2014).
Research on misperception of weight has focused traditionally on risk for body dissatisfaction, psychological
distress, and eating disorders (Isomaa, Isomaa, Marttunen,
Kaltiala-Heino, & Björkqvist, 2011; ter Bogt et al., 2006).
Indeed, compared with adolescents of normal weight
who accurately perceive their weight, adolescents who
misperceive themselves as being overweight are more
likely to report that they are currently dieting to lose
weight, an association seen in many cultures around the
world (Quick et al., 2014). Moreover, adolescents who
misperceive themselves as being overweight are more
likely to report extreme weight-loss behaviors, such as
using diet pills or laxatives, vomiting, or going without
food for at least 24 hr (Eichen, Conner, Daly, & Fauber,
2012; Martin et al., 2014; Talamayan, Springer, Kelder,
Gorospe, & Joye, 2006). Although adolescents who
misperceive themselves as being overweight report exercising more than those who perceive their weight accurately, they also spend more time in front of a screen
(Lim & Wang, 2013) and are more prone to overeating
(Deschamps, Salanave, Chan-Chee, Vernay, & Castetbon,
The evidence that misperceiving oneself as overweight
is associated with unhealthy dieting and behaviors conducive to obesity raises the question of whether this
misperception is associated with an increased risk of
becoming obese. The transition from adolescence to
adulthood is an important developmental period for obesity (The, Suchindran, North, Popkin, & Gordon-Larsen,
Corresponding Author:
Angelina R. Sutin, Florida State University College of Medicine, 1115
W. Call St., Tallahassee, FL 32306
Sutin, Terracciano
Table 1. Participants’ Characteristics
Age (years)
M = 16.15 (SD = 1.59)
M = 28.74 (SD = 1.59)
M = 5.82 (SD = 2.23)
Sex (% female)
Race (%)
Native American
Hispanic ethnicity (%)
M = 5.30 (SD = 2.16)
BMI-for-age percentileb
Misperception of being overweight (%)
Note: There were 6,523 participants, 3,810 women and 2,713 men.
Education was scored on a scale from 1 (completed eighth grade or
less) to 11 (completed an advanced degree); these values indicate
the highest level of education achieved at the time of the Wave 4
assessment. bBody mass index (BMI)-for-age percentile was scaled by
2010), and it is critical to identify psychological factors
that increase risk of obesity across this transition. To that
end, we used the National Longitudinal Study of
Adolescent Health (Add Health; http://www.cpc.unc
.edu/projects/addhealth) to examine whether adolescents who misperceived themselves as being overweight
were at increased risk of developing obesity (i.e., at
increased risk of incident obesity) in young adulthood.
Participants were drawn from Waves 2 and 4 of Add
Health. Wave 2 was selected as the baseline because it
was the first in which participants’ weight and height
were measured by trained staff. Wave 4 was selected for
follow-up because it was the most recent assessment. Add
Health followed standard protocol for informed consent;
the Florida State University institutional review board also
approved analyses of these data. Participants were
excluded from analyses if (a) they were missing data on
any of the pertinent variables: body-mass index (BMI) at
Wave 2 (n = 4,141),1 BMI at Wave 4 (n = 172), or perceived weight at Wave 2 (n = 4); (b) they were outside of
the age-based normal range for BMI at the Wave 2 assessment (i.e., they were either underweight or overweight;
n = 3,469); or (c) they misperceived themselves as lighter
than their measured weight (n = 1,392). In total, 9,178
participants were thus excluded either by necessity (i.e.,
the relevant data were not available) or by design (i.e., the
focus was on adolescents who had a normal weight and
either perceived themselves accurately or misperceived
themselves as being overweight). As a result, of the
15,701 participants who completed the Wave 4 assessment, 6,523 were included in the analyses reported here
(descriptive statistics for this sample are presented in
Table 1). Participants included in the analyses were, on
average, 16.15 years old (SD = 1.59) at baseline and 28.74
years old (SD = 1.59) at follow-up.
Body mass index. Before height and weight measurements, participants were asked to remove their shoes
and any bulky clothing. Height was measured to the
nearest 0.5 cm using a steel tape measure, and weight
was measured to the nearest 0.1 kg using a Health o
meter 844KL high-capacity digital bathroom scale ­(Entzel
et al., 2009). We converted BMI in adolescence to agebased percentiles (BMI-for-age percentiles) using growth
charts from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Kuczmarski et al., 2000). Participants were
selected if they measured in the normal BMI range (from
the 5th through the 84th percentiles) for adolescents. In
addition, the analyses were also conducted using raw
BMI in adolescence. The outcome measured was obesity
(BMI ≥ 30; 24.2% rate of incident obesity) in early
Perceived weight. Perceived weight was assessed with
the item “How do you think of yourself in terms of
weight?” Participants responded on a scale from 1 (very
underweight) to 5 (very overweight). Participants were
classified as correctly perceiving themselves to be of normal weight (i.e., their perception matched their measured
normal weight) or as misperceiving themselves to be
overweight (i.e., they perceived themselves as overweight
but their measured weight was normal), according to the
method of Harris, King, and Gordon-Larsen (2005).
We used logistic regression to test whether the misperception of being overweight (rather than the accurate
perception of normal weight) was associated with developing obesity between the two assessment points. We
controlled for age, sex, race, Hispanic ethnicity, education, and baseline BMI. We then reran the analysis using
linear regression to test whether such an association
occurred for weight gain as a continuous measure. We
also tested whether such an association varied by sex,
race, ethnicity, and age. Because of the large sample size,
we considered p values less than .01 (two-tailed) to be
Misperceived Weight and Incident Obesity
Table 2. Odds Ratios for Risk of Incident Obesity in Adulthood and Results of a Regression Analysis Predicting Weight
Gain from Adolescence to Adulthood
Odds ratio for risk of incident obesitya
Age at baselinec
Sex (female)
Native American
Hispanic ethnicity
BMI-for-age percentiled
Misperception of being overweight
1.14 [1.08, 1.20]*
0.88 [.85, .92]*

1.18 [1.11, 1.25]*
0.98 [.94, 1.02]

1.15 [1.10, 1.19]*
0.92 [.90, .95]*
1.00 [.88, 1.14]
1.65 [1.35, 2.02]*
0.64 [.41, 1.01]
0.89 [.41, 1.94]
0.84 [.58, 1.23]
0.77 [.50, 1.17]
1.25 [.95, 1.64]
1.52 [1.45, 1.60]*
1.29 [1.08, 1.55]*
0.96 [.74, 1.23]
0.74 [.47, 1.16]
1.95 [.83, 4.59]
1.29 [.85, 1.95]
0.94 [.58, 1.53]
1.52 [1.11, 2.08]*
1.45 [1.38, 1.53]*
1.89 [1.43, 2.50]*
1.32 [1.13, 1.54]*
0.69 [.50, .94]
1.21 [.68, 2.15]
1.02 [.77, 1.34]
0.85 [.62, 1.17]
1.35 [1.10, 1.66]*
1.49 [1.44, 1.55]*
1.41 [1.22, 1.64]*
Note: There were 6,523 participants, 3,810 women and 2,713 men.
Although the moderation analysis revealed a significant interaction between misperception of being overweight and sex, for ease
of interpretation, results are presented separately for each sex. bThis column reports results of a linear regression predicting body
mass index (BMI) in adulthood while controlling for BMI in adolescence. cThe results were identical when age at follow-up was used
instead of baseline age. dBMI-for-age percentile was scaled in deciles. The results were the same when raw BMI values were used. At
Wave 4, mean BMI was 26.97 (SD = 5.16).
*p < .01. Results Discussion The results of these regression analyses are summarized in Table 2. Among adolescents of normal weight, those who perceived themselves to be overweight had 1.41 greater odds of becoming obese by early adulthood compared with those who perceived themselves accurately (Table 2). This effect was independent of baseline BMI and was nearly as strong as the effect of each decile increase in BMI-for-age percentile. The results were identical when raw BMI in adolescence was used instead of BMI-for-age percentile. The misperception of being overweight was also associated with more weight gain as a continuous variable (Table 2). Although the association was apparent for both sexes, it was significantly stronger among boys (Mispercep­ tion × Sex odds ratio = 0.66, 95% CI = [0.48, 0.90]). The misperception of being overweight was associated with 1.89 greater odds of obesity for boys, compared with 1.29 greater odds among girls (Table 2). Neither race nor ethnicity moderated this association, which indicated that adolescents who misperceived their weight, regardless of race or ethnicity, had similar obesity risk. This association was also not moderated by age. In addition, the misperception of being overweight was unrelated to risk of becoming underweight in adulthood (n = 56 girls, n = 9 boys), and the results were identical if these participants were excluded from the main analyses. Previous research has linked misperception of weight to unhealthy dieting practices and behaviors that are conducive to obesity (Deschamps et al., 2014; Eichen et al., 2012; Martin et al., 2014; Talamayan et al., 2006). The present research indicates that misperception of weight is also associated with risk of incident obesity: Adolescents of normal weight who perceived themselves to be heavier than their measured BMI were more likely to become obese over the 12-year follow-up period. Adolescents who misperceive themselves as being overweight are more likely to engage in extreme dieting behavior (Quick et al., 2014), such as fasting, using diet pills, and taking laxatives (Martin et al., 2014). These unhealthy weight-control behaviors are linked to more weight gain across the transition from adolescence to adulthood (Neumark-Sztainer, Wall, Story, & Standish, 2012). Such behaviors are likely to be one mechanism through which misperception is associated with obesity: Adolescents who misperceive themselves as being overweight engage in these behaviors, which contribute to greater long-term weight gain. At least two other non–mutually exclusive mechanisms may contribute to this association. First, growing evidence indicates that the social stigmatization of body weight is associated with the development of obesity. Among older adults, for example, discrimination on the basis of weight is associated with the development and maintenance of Sutin, Terracciano 510 obesity (Sutin & Terracciano, 2013). Among adolescents, girls who are labeled “fat” have increased risk of developing obesity within a decade (Hunger & Tomiyama, 2014). People who experience such stigmatization tend to engage in behaviors conducive to obesity (e.g., binge eating; Puhl, Moss-Racusin, & Schwartz, 2007) that are likely to contribute to the increased risk. Our results suggest that the label does not need to be applied by someone else; self-stigmatization and the internalization of weight bias are just as powerful. Second, the psychological correlates of misperception of weight may be associated with a reduced ability to selfregulate and control one’s behavior. People who internalize weight bias, for example, experience more anxiety and depression and have lower self-efficacy than people who do not internalize such bias (Hilbert, Braehler, Haeuser, & Zenger, 2014). Adolescents who are concerned about their weight may have difficulty self-regulating their eating (Nickelson, Bryant, McDermott, Buhi, & Debate, 2012), may be prone to emotional eating, and may have difficulties with restraint. The misperception may also become a self-fulfilling prophecy. That is, adolescents who misperceive themselves as being overweight may not take the steps necessary to maintain a healthy weight, because as they gain weight, they physically become what they have long perceived themselves to be. This research also suggests that the population considered to be at risk needs to be expanded. First, concerns about weight are typically focused on children who fall outside the range of normal BMI. The present research indicates, however, that body-image distortion is common even among adolescents of normal weight and poses a significant risk for obesity. Second, when healthcare professionals address such distortions, they usually focus on girls, who are at higher risk for eating disorders. Strikingly, however, Add Health data indicate that the obesity risk associated with misperception is greater for boys, a population not traditionally considered to be at high risk for distorted perceptions of body weight. For boys, weight misperception was a stronger predictor of incident obesity than measured BMI in adolescence. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that clinicians address body image as a priority for well-child visits during adolescence (Hagan, Shaw, & Duncan, 2008). The present research underscores the importance of addressing not only attitudes toward the body but also the discrepancy between perception and reality: Selfperceptions and measurements need to be taken seriously for all adolescents, not just those of abnormal weight and not just girls. At the same time, physicians, schools, and parents need to discuss weight carefully, particularly with adolescents who are nearly overweight. Although we were unable to determine how adolescents came to misperceive themselves as overweight, our results indicate that such misperceptions are associated with increased risk of incident obesity. Greater recognition of the psychological processes that contribute to obesity will inform prevention efforts to help adolescents maintain a healthy weight across the transition into adulthood. Author Contributions A. R. Sutin and A. Terracciano developed the study concept. A. R. Sutin secured the data from Add Health, performed the data analysis, and drafted the manuscript. A. Terracciano provided critical revisions. Both authors approved the final version of the manuscript for submission. Acknowledgments This research used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which was funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and 23 other federal agencies and foundations. There was no direct support from the NICHD for this analysis. Declaration of Conflicting Interests The authors declared that they had no conflicts of interest with respect to their authorship or the publication of this article. Note 1. This is primarily attributable to the design of Add Health, in which approximately 25% of the original sample was not assessed at Wave 2. References Deschamps, V., Salanave, B., Chan-Chee, C., Vernay, M., & Castetbon, K. (2014). Body-weight perception and related preoccupations in a large national sample of adolescents. Pediatric Obesity. Advance online publication. doi:10.1111/ j.2047-6310.2013.00211.x Eichen, D. M., Conner, B. T., Daly, B. P., & Fauber, R. L. (2012). Weight perception, substance use, and disordered eating behaviors: Comparing normal weight and overweight highschool students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41, 1–13. doi:10.1007/s10964-010-9612-8 Entzel, P., Whitsel, E. A., Richardson, A., Tabor, J., Hallquist, S., Hussey, J., . . . Harris, K. M. (2009). Add Health Wave IV documentation: Cardiovascular and anthropometric measures. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center. Hagan, J. F., Shaw, J. S., & Duncan, P. (2008). Bright futures: Guidelines for health supervision of infants, children, and adolescents (3rd ed.). Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics. Harris, K. M., King, R. B., & Gordon-Larsen, P. (2005). Healthy habits among adolescents: Sleep, exercise, diet, and body image. In K. A. Moore & L. H. Lippman (Eds.), What do children need to flourish? Conceptualizing and measuring indicators of positive development (pp. 111–132). New York, NY: Springer. Misperceived Weight and Incident Obesity Hilbert, A., Braehler, E., Haeuser, W., & Zenger, M. (2014). Weight bias internalization, core self-evaluation, and health in overweight and obese persons. Obesity, 22, 79–85. doi:10.1002/oby.20561 Hunger, J. M., & Tomiyama, A. J. (2014). Weight labeling and obesity: A longitudinal study of girls aged 10 to 19 years. JAMA Pediatrics, 168, 579–580. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics .2014.122 Isomaa, R., Isomaa, A. L., Marttunen, M., Kaltiala-Heino, R., & Björkqvist, K. (2011). Longitudinal concomitants of incorrect weight perception in female and male adolescents. Body Image, 8, 58–63. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2010.11.005 Kuczmarski, R. J., Ogden, C. L., Grummer-Strawn, L. M., Flegal, K. M., Guo, S. S., Wei, R., . . . Johnson, C. L. (2000). Advance Data. CDC growth charts: United States (Report No. 314). Retrieved from the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics Web site: data/ad/ad314.pdf Lim, H., & Wang, Y. (2013). Body weight misperception patterns and their association with health-related factors among adolescents in South Korea. Obesity, 21, 2596–2603. doi:10.1002/oby.20361 Martin, B. C., Dalton, W. T., Williams, S. L., Slawson, D. L., Dunn, M. S., & Johns-Wommack, R. (2014). Weight status misperception as related to selected health risk behaviors among middle school students. Journal of School Health, 84, 116–123. doi:10.1111/josh.12128 Neumark-Sztainer, D., Wall, M., Story, M., & Standish, A. R. (2012). Dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors during adolescence: Associations with 10-year changes in body mass index. Journal of Adolescent Health, 50, 80–86. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.05.010 511 Nickelson, J., Bryant, C. A., McDermott, R. J., Buhi, E. R., & Debate, R. D. (2012). A modified obesity proneness model predicts adolescent weight concerns and inability to selfregulate eating. Journal of School Health, 82, 560–571. doi:10.1111/j.1746-1561.2012.00737.x Puhl, R. M., Moss-Racusin, C. A., & Schwartz, M. B. (2007). Internalization of weight bias: Implications for binge eating and emotional well-being. Obesity, 15, 19–23. doi:10.1038/ oby.2007.521 Quick, V., Nansel, T. R., Liu, D., Lipsky, L. M., Due, P., & Iannotti, R. J. (2014). Body size perception and weight control in youth: 9-year international trends from 24 countries. International Journal of Obesity, 38, 988–994. doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.62 Sutin, A. R., & Terracciano, A. (2013). Perceived weight discrimination and obesity. PLoS ONE, 8(7), Article e70048. Retrieved from info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0070048 Talamayan, K. S., Springer, A. E., Kelder, S. H., Gorospe, E. C., & Joye, K. A. (2006). Prevalence of overweight misperception and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the United States. Scientific World Journal, 6, 365–373. doi:10.1100/tsw.2006.70 ter Bogt, T. F., van Dorsselaer, S. A., Monshouwer, K., Verdurmen, J. E., Engels, R. C., & Vollebergh, W. A. (2006). Body mass index and body weight perception as risk factors for internalizing and externalizing problem behavior among adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 39, 27– 34. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2005.09.007 The, N. S., Suchindran, C., North, K. E., Popkin, B. M., & Gordon-Larsen, P. (2010). Association of adolescent obesity with risk of severe obesity in adulthood. Journal of the American Medical Association, 304, 2042–2047.

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