Psychology Question

1Forester-Miller, H., & Davis, T. (2016). A practitioner’s guide to ethical decision
making. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association. Retrieved from
Corey, G., Corey, M., & Callanan, P. (2007). Issues and ethics in the helping professions
(7th ed). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Kitchener, K.S. (1984). Intuition, critical evaluation and ethical principles: The
foundation for ethical decisions in counseling psychology. The Counseling Psychologist,
12(3), 43-55. doi: 10.1177/0011000084123005
Essay 2- Ethical Decision-Making Including Multicultural Implications Rubric
Chapter 1
behave in this way? If the counselor does not meet the client’s expectations,
is trust being established?
• lVeracity means truthfulness, which involves the practitioner’s obligation
to deal honestly with clients. Unless practitioners are truthful with their clients,
the trust required to form a good working relationship will not develop.
An example of the principle of veracity is found in the Code of Ethics of the
Association for Addiction Professionals (NAADAC,2008):
I understand that effectiveness in my profession is largely based on the ability to be worthy of trust, and I shall work to the best of my ability to act
consistently within the bounds of a known moral universe, to faithfully fulfill the terms of both personal and professional commitments, to safeguard
fiduciary relationships consistently, and to speak the truth as it is known to me.
(Principle 4.)
The six principles discussed here are a good place to start in determining
the degree to which your practice is consistent with promoting the welfare
of the clients you serve. To the list above, Barnett (2008)adds self-care, which
involves taking adequate care of ourselves so that we are able to implement the preceding virtues. If mental health professionals fail to practice self-care,
their ability to effectively implement the other principles will be impaired
(Barnett, Johnston, & Hillard, 2006).
Steps in Making Ethical Decisions
When making ethical decisions, ask yourself these questions: “Which values
do I rely on and why? How do my values affect my work with clients?” When
making ethical decisions, the National Association of Social Workers (2008)
cautions you to be aware of your clients’ as well as your own personal values, cultural and religious beliefs, and practices. Acting responsibly implies
recognizing any conflicts between personal and professional values and
dealing with them effectively.The American Counseling Association’s (2005)
Code of Ethics states that when counselors encounter an ethical dilemma
they are expected to carefully consider an ethical decision-making process.
To make sound ethical decisions, it is necessary to slow down the decisionmaking process and engage in an intentional course of ethical deliberation,
consultation, and action (Barnett & Johnson, 2010).Although no one ethical
decision-making model is most effective, mental health professionals need to
be familiar with at least one of the following models or an amalgam that best
fits for them.
Ethical decision making is not a purely cognitive and linear process that
follows clearly defined and predictable steps. Indeed, it is crucial to acknowledge that emotions playa part in how you make ethical decisions. As a practitioner, your feelings will likely influence how you interpret both your client’s
behavior and your own behavior. Furthermore, if you are uncomfortable with
an ethical decision and do not adequately deal with this discomfort, it will
Corey, G., Corey, M., & Callanan, P. (2011). Issuesand ethics in the helping professions (8th ed.).
Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Introduction to ProfessionalEthics
certainly influence your future behavior with your client. An integral part
of recognizing and working through an ethical concern is discussing your
beliefs and values, motivations, feelings, and actions with a supervisor or a
In the process of making the best ethical decisions, it is also important
to involve your clients whenever possible. Because you are making decisions
about what is best for the welfare of your clients, it is good to strive to discuss with them the nature of the ethical dilemma that pertains to them. The
. feminist model for ethical decision making calls for maximum involvement
, ofthe-c”ilentatevery stage of the process, a strategy based on the feminist
principle that power should be equalized in the therapeutic relationship
(Hilt Glaser, & Harden, 1995). \
Consulting with the client fully and appropriately is an essential step in
ethical decision making, for doing so increases the chances of making the
best possible decision. Walden (2006) suggests that important therapeutic
benefits can result from inclusion of the client in the ethical decision-making
process, and she offers some strategies for accomplishing this goal at both
the organizational and individual levels.~en
we make decisions about a
client for the client rather than with the client Walden maintains that we rob
the client of power in the relationship~en
we collaborate with clients, they
are empowered. Bysoliciting the client’s perspective, we stand a good chance
of achieving bettercounseling results and the be~t resolution for any ethical
questions that arise. Potential therapeutic benefits can be gained by including clients in dealing with ethical concerns, and this practice represents functioning at the aspirationallevel. In fact, Walden questions whether it is truly
possible to attain the aspirationallevel of ethical functioning without including the client’s voice in ethical concerns. By adding the voice and the unique
perspective of the consumers of professional services, we indicate to the public that we as a profession are genuinely interested in protecting the rights
and welfare of those who make use of our services. Walden sees few risks in
bringing the client into ethical matters, and there are many benefits to both
the client and the professional.
TIle social constructionist model of ethical decision making shares some
aspects with the feminist model, but focuses primarily on the social aspects
of decision making in counseling (Cottone, 2001). This model redefines the
ethical decision-making process as an interactive rather than an individual or
intrapsychic process and places the decision in the social context itself, not in
the mind of the person making the decision, This approach involves negotiating, consensualizing, and when necessary, arbitrating.
Garcia, Cartwright, Winston, and Borzuchowska (2003) describe atranscultural integrative model of ethical decision making that addresses
the need for including cultural factors in the process of resolving ethical
dilemmas}They present their model in a step-by-step format that counselors can use in dealing with ethical dilemmas in a variety of settings and
with different client populations. Frame and Williams (2005) have developed a model of ethical decision making from a multicultural perspective
Chapter 1
based on universalist philosophy. In this model cultural differences are recognized, but common principles such as altruism, responsibility, justice, and
caring that link cultures are emphasized.
Barnett and Johnson (2010)remind us that many of the ethical dilemmas
we will encounter do not have a readily apparent answer. Keeping in mind the
feminist model of ethical decision making, Walden’s (2006)views on including the client’s voice in ethical concerns, a social constructionist approach to
ethics, and a transcultural integrative model of ethical decision making, we
present our approach to thinking through ethical dilemmas. Following these
steps may help you think through ethical problems.
l:1!/ldentifythe problem 01- dilemma. Itis important to determine whether
a situation truly involves ethics. The distinction between unorthodox and poor professional practice may be unclear (Koocher & KeithSpiegel, 2008).To determine the nature of the problem or dilemma,
gather all the information that sheds light on the situation. Clarify
whether the conflict is ethical, legal, clinical, professional, or moral-or
a combination of any or all of these. The first step toward resolving an
ethical dilemma is recognizing that a problem exists and identifying its
specific nature. Because most ethical dilemmas are complex, it is useful
to look at the problem from many perspectives. Consultation with your
client begins at this initial stage and continues throughout the process of
working toward an ethical decision, as does the process of documenting
your decisions and actions. Frame and Williams (2005)suggest reflecting on these questions to identify and define an ethical dilemma: “What
is the crux of the dilemma? Who is involved? What are the stakes? What
values of mine are involved? What cultural and historical factors are in
play? What insights does my client have regarding the dilemma? How is
the client affected by the various aspects of the problem? What are my
insights about the problem?” Taking the time to engage in reflection is
an essential first step.
2.Jldentify the potential issues involved. After the information is collected, list and describe the critical issues and discard the irrelevant
ones. Evaluate the rights, responsibilities, and welfare of all those who
are affected by the situation. Consider the cultural context of the situation, including any relevant cultural dimensions of the client’s situation. It is important to consider the context of power and also to assess
acculturation and racial identity development of the client (Frame &
‘Williams,2005).Part of the process of making ethical decisions involves
identifying and examining the ethical principles that are relevant in the
situation. Consider the six fundamental moral principles-autonomy,
nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, fidelity, and veracity-and apply
them to the situation, including those that may be in conflict. It may
help to prioritize these ethical principles and think through ways in
which they can support a resolution to the dilemma. Reasons can be
presented that support various sides of a given issue, and different
Introduction to Professional Ethics
ethical principles may sometimes imply contradictory courses of action.
When it is appropriate, and to the degree that it is possible, involve your
client in identifying potential issues in the situation.
3: Review the relevant ethics codes. Consult available guidelines that
could apply in your situation. Ask yourself whether the standards or
principles of your professional organization offer a possible solution to
the problem. Consider whether your own values and ethics are consistent with, or in conflict with, the relevant codes. If you are in disagreement with a particular standard, do you have a rationale to support
your position? It is imperative to document this process to demonstrate
your conscientious commitment to solving a dilemma. You can also
seek guidance from your professional organization on any specific concern relating to an ethical or legal situation. Most of the national professional organizations provide members with access to a telephone
discussion of ethical and legal issues. These consultations focus on
giving members guidance in understanding and applying the code of
ethics to a particular situation and in assisting members in exploring
relevant questions. However, these consultations do not tell members
what to do, nor does the organization assume responsibility for making
the decision.
4.i Know the applicable laws and regulations. It is essential for you to
keep up to date on relevant state and federal laws that might apply to
ethical dilemmas. In addition, be sure you understand the current rules
and regulations of the agency or organization where you work. .::J::his,.j.s

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