SOC 1010 UMCP Introduction to Sociology Video Reflects Worksheet

GENERATION LIKE

February 18, 2014
/ 53m

Season 2014: Episode 7

WATCH THE TRAILERPRODUCED BY:Frank Koughan

Douglas Rushkoff

NEVER MISS A FRONTLINE DOCUMENTARYGET OUR NEWSLETTER Critical Reading/Viewing Protocol
Adapted from “Making Thinking Visible” Ritchhart, Church and Morrison
Text/Documentary Title:
Text/Documentary Source:
CONNECTIONS: What connections do you draw between the text or video and your own life or your
other learning?
CHALLENGE: What ideas, positions or assumptions do you want to challenge or argue with in the
text or video?
CONCEPTS: Select at least TWO key sociological concepts that are applicable to the text or video
and explain how the concepts apply to the text or video.
SOCIAL JUSTICE – Alleviating a Social Problem: What changes in attitudes, thinking or action has to
take place within society in order to remedy the problem(s) that is central to the reading or video?
Critical Reading/Viewing Protocol
Adapted from “Making Thinking Visible” Ritchhart, Church and Morrison
Kerry Ferris & Jill Stein
Lecture Slides
Chapter 4:
Socialization, Interaction, and the Self
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
Getting Warmed Up!
Lecture Launcher Question #1
Nature is to nurture as _____ is to _____.
a. environment; biology
b. biology; environment
c. biology; sexuality
d. sexuality; environment
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Getting Warmed Up!
Lecture Launcher Question #2
Socialization
a. occurs until the age of 5, when children start school.
b. concludes when children complete school.
c. is a lifelong process.
d. does not occur as an adult.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Getting Warmed Up!
Lecture Launcher Question #3
The idea that “if people define situations as real, they are real in
their consequences” is also known as
a. the Thomas theorem.
b. the reality theorem.
c. the looking-glass self theorem.
d. situational understanding.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Getting Warmed Up!
Lecture Launcher Question #4
Which agent of socialization has the most impact during the earliest
stages of a child’s life?
a. school
b. peers
c. mass media
d. family
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Getting Warmed Up!
Lecture Launcher Question #5
• Match the term with the correct definition:
a. achieved status
1. a status with which we are born
b. ascribed status
2. a status generated by physical
characteristics
3. a status we earn
c. embodied status
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Getting Warmed Up!
Lecture Launcher Question #6
As people spend more time texting one another and less time in
face-to-face interactions, _____ is becoming less frequent.
a. copresence
b. dual interaction
c. co-interaction
d. facetime
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Getting Warmed Up!
Lecture Launcher Question #7
_____ are socially constructed norms regarding the appropriate
feelings and displays of emotions.
a. Emotion rules
b. Feeling rules
c. Emotion folkways
d. Feeling folkways
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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What Is Human Nature?
The nature vs. nurture debate: Are we the people that we are
because of our genetics or our socialization? This debate asks which
factor determines individual behaviors and traits.
Ultimately, both sides play a role in making us the people that we
are.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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The Process of Socialization
• Socialization is the process of learning and internalizing the
values, beliefs, and norms of our social group.
• The socialization process begins in infancy and lasts throughout
the lifetime.
• Language facilitates socialization.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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The Development of the Self
• The self is our experience of a personal identity, which is separate
and different from all other people.
• Sociologists believe the self is created and modified through
interaction during the lifespan.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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The Development of the Self: Sigmund
Freud
• Sigmund Freud is usually associated with psychoanalysis, but his
theories have also helped sociologists gain a better understanding
of social behavior.
• Freud developed the idea of the subconscious mind and the
unconscious mind, which he believed control most of our drives,
impulses, thoughts, and behaviors.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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The Development of the Self: Charles
Cooley
• Charles Cooley believed that
the sense of self depends on seeing oneself reflected in
interactions with others.
• The looking-glass self refers to the notion that the self develops
through our perception of others’ evaluations and appraisals of us.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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The Development of the Self: George
Herbert Mead
• George Herbert Mead expanded Cooley’s ideas. Mead also
believed that the self was created through social interaction and
that this process started in childhood.
• Mead believed that the self develops through three stages: the
preparatory stage, the play stage (taking the role of the significant
other), and the game stage.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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The Development of the Self: Childhood
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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The Development of the Self: Language
• The acquisition of language skills coincides with the growth of
mental capacities, including the ability to think of ourselves as
separate and distinct and to see ourselves in relationship to
others.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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The Development of the Self: Erving
Goffman
• Erving Goffman believed
that meaning is constructed through interaction.
• His approach, called dramaturgy, compares social interaction to
the theater, where individuals take on roles and act them out for
an audience.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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The Development of the Self: Erving
Goffman (cont’d.)
• Goffman saw social life as a sort of game, where we work to
control the impressions others have of us, a process he called
impression management.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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The Thomas Theorem
• W. I. Thomas stated that “if people define situations as real, they
are real in their consequences.” This is now called the Thomas
theorem.
• Because we encounter ambiguous situations every day, many
meanings are possible. The way we define each situation, then,
becomes its reality.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Agents of Socialization
• Agents of socialization are the social groups, institutions, and
individuals that provide structured situations where socialization
occurs.
• Major agents
• Family
• Schools
• Peers
• Mass media
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Agents of Socialization: The Family
• The family is the single most
significant agent of socialization
in all societies and teaches us the
basic values and norms that
shape our identity.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Agents of Socialization: Schools
• Schools provide education and socialize us through a hidden
curriculum (a set of values and behaviors such as punctuality,
neatness, discipline, hard work, competition, and obedience) that
teaches many of the behaviors deemed important later in life.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Agents of Socialization: Peers
• Peers provide very different social skills and often become more
immediately significant than the family, especially as children
move through adolescence.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Agents of Socialization: Media
• Mass media has become an
important agent of socialization,
often overriding the family and
other institutions in instilling
values and norms.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Agents of Socialization: Resocialization
• Resocialization is the process of replacing previously learned
norms and values with new ones as a part of a transition in life.
• A dramatic form of resocialization takes place in a total institution,
an institution (such as a prison, cult, or mental hospital) that cuts
individuals off from the rest of society so that their lives can be
controlled and regulated.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Agents of Socialization: Total Institutions
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Statuses and Roles: Status
• A status is a position in society that comes with a set of
expectations.
• An ascribed status is one we are born with that is unlikely to
change.
• An achieved status is one we have earned through our
individual effort or that is imposed by others.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Statuses and Roles
• Our master status is a status that seems to override all others and
affects all other statuses that we possess.
• Roles are the set of behaviors expected from a particular status.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Statuses and Roles: Roles
• Role conflict occurs when the
roles associated with one status
clash with the roles associated
with a different status.
• Role strain occurs when roles
associated with a single status
clash.
• Either of these processes may
lead to role exit.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Emotions and Personality
• Though we tend to believe that our emotions are highly personal
and individual, there are social patterns in our emotional
responses.
• Emotional responses are socially constructed, meaning they are
influenced by social and cultural context.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Emotions and Personality (cont’d.)
• Emotion work refers to the
process of evoking, suppressing,
or managing feelings to create a
public display of emotion.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Interacting Online
• Sociologists are interested in interactions that occur in copresence
(when individuals are in one another’s physical presence) and the
way that modern technology enables us to interact with people
very far away.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Interacting Online (cont’d.)
• Postmodern theorists claim that the role of technology in
interaction is one of the primary features of postmodern life.
• We are now exposed to many more sources that help us shape our
sense of self than the generations before us were.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Socialization, Interaction, and the Self—
Concept Quiz Question #1
The process of learning and internalizing the values, beliefs, and
norms of a social group is called
a. culturization.
b. nature.
c. socialization.
d. social isolation.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Socialization, Interaction, and the Self—
Concept Quiz Question #2
In the nature vs. nurture debate, nurture refers to the
a. environment you were raised in.
b. genetics you were born with.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Socialization, Interaction, and the Self—
Concept Quiz Question #3
Sociologists primarily view the self as
a. fixed at an early age and based largely on genetics.
b. created and modified through interaction with others.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Socialization, Interaction, and the Self—
Concept Quiz Question #4
When does the process of socialization end?
a. once a child begins to understand language
b. when a child starts school
c. when a person gets their first job
d. when a person gets married
e. never—the process lasts throughout the lifetime
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Socialization, Interaction, and the Self—
Concept Quiz Question #5
Who stated, “If we define situations as real, they are real in their
consequences”?
a. Sigmund Freud
b. Charles Cooley
c. George Herbert Mead
d. Karl Marx
e. W. I. Thomas
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Socialization, Interaction, and the Self—
Concept Quiz Question #6
A big agent of socialization for Americans is
a. the family.
b. schools.
c. peers.
d. the mass media.
e. all of the above
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Socialization, Interaction, and the Self—
Concept Quiz Question #7
A status that seems to override all others and affects all other
statuses that we possess is called a(n)
a. ascribed status.
b. achieved status.
c. master status.
d. embodied status.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Socialization, Interaction, and the Self—
Concept Quiz Question #8
Given what you have learned about roles, if your boss calls and asks
you to work during class time, you will know you are experiencing
a. role conflict.
b. role strain.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Socialization, Interaction, and the Self—
Participation Question #1
In your opinion, what has a stronger influence in how a person
“turns out”?
a. the person’s parents
b. the person’s genetics
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Socialization, Interaction, and the Self—
Participation Question #2
Which group do you think influences your taste in clothing or music
the most?
a. family
b. friends
c. school
d. TV and other mass media
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Socialization, Interaction, and the Self—
Participation Question #3
Which group most strongly influenced your decisions about
smoking cigarettes, using drugs, and drinking alcohol?
a. family
b. friends
c. school
d. TV and other mass media
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Socialization, Interaction, and the Self—
Data Workshop Activity
• Refer to the Data Workshop on page 106 to prepare for this
activity.
• Outside class we may all be markedly different people, but here
and now we all have some things in common, so let’s look at this
experience.
• Working individually, answer the questions in bullet points on
page 106. Be prepared to share your thoughts with the class!
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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This concludes the Lecture
PowerPoint presentation
for Chapter 4
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Kerry Ferris & Jill Stein
Lecture Slides
Chapter 3
Culture
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
Getting Warmed Up!
Lecture Launcher Question 1
When William goes on vacation to Germany, he sees older children
having a small glass of wine with their parents while at dinner.
William, being from the United States, believes this is wrong. This is
an example of
a. ethnocentrism.
b. multiculturalism.
c. cultural relativism.
d. normlessness.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Getting Warmed Up!
Lecture Launcher Question 2
Which of the following are examples of material culture? Include all
that apply.
a. __ the “play” icon on Netflix or YouTube
b. __ a spatula
c. __ a Little Mermaid DVD
d. __ a hammer
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Getting Warmed Up!
Lecture Launcher Question 3
Culture is more innate than learned.
a. true
b. false
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Getting Warmed Up!
Lecture Launcher Question 4
Norms can be categorized from least serious to most serious. Rank
the following types of norms accordingly:
a. mores
b. taboos
c. folkways
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Getting Warmed Up!
Lecture Launcher Question 5
In Pennsylvania, there is a large neighborhood primarily consisting
of Amish people. They live harmoniously with their non-Amish
neighbors. They are distinctive because of the clothes they wear
and the horses and buggies they opt to drive in the neighborhood.
The Amish are an example of a
a. counterculture.
b. dominant culture.
c. subculture.
d. cultural dichotomy.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Getting Warmed Up!
Lecture Launcher Question 6
_____ is the dissemination of beliefs and practices from one group
to another.
a. Cultural relativism
b. Cultural diffusion
c. Cultural sharing
d. Cultural leveling
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Getting Warmed Up!
Lecture Launcher Question 7
Which perspective explores the ways in which components of
culture such as norms and values contribute to the organization
and stability of society?
a. structural functionalism
b. conflict theory
c. symbolic interactionism
d. post modernism
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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What Is Culture?
• Culture is the entire way of life
for a group of people.
• It is hard for us to see our own
culture, so we may not recognize
the extent to which it shapes and
defines who we are.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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What Is Culture? (cont’d.)
• Culture includes things such as
language, standards of beauty,
hand gestures, styles of dress,
food, and music.
• Culture is learned. It is passed
from one generation to the next
through communication—not
genetics.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Ethnocentrism
• Ethnocentrism occurs when people use their own culture as a
standard to evaluate another group or individual, leading to the
view, that cultures other than their own are abnormal.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Rituals
• “The Nacirema have an almost
pathological horror of and fascination with
the mouth, the condition of which is
believed to have a supernatural infuence
on all social relationships. Were it not for
the rituals of the mouth, they believe that
their teeth would fall out, their gums
bleed, their jaws shrink, their friends
desert them, and their lovers reject them.
The daily body ritual performed by
everyone includes a mouth-rite.”
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Cultural Relativism
• Cultural relativism is the process of understanding other cultures
on their own terms, rather than judging according to one’s own
culture.
• When studying any group, it is important to try to employ cultural
relativism because it helps sociologists see others more
objectively.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Components of Culture
Slide 1/7
• Culture consists of two different categories: material culture and
symbolic culture.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Components of Culture
Slide 2/7
• Material culture includes the
objects associated with a cultural
group, such as tools, machines,
utensils, buildings, and artwork.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Components of Culture
Slide 3/7
• Symbolic culture includes ways of thinking (beliefs, values, and
assumptions) and ways of behaving (norms, interactions, and
communication).
• One of the most important functions of symbolic culture is to
allow us to communicate through signs, gestures, and language.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Components of Culture
Slide 4/7
• Signs (or symbols), such as a traffic signal or product logo, are
used to meaningfully represent something else.
• Gestures are the signs that we make with our body, such as hand
gestures and facial expressions; it is important to note that these
gestures also carry meaning.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Components of Culture
Slide 5/7
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Components of Culture
Slide 6/7
• Finally, language is a system of communication using vocal
sounds, gestures, and written symbols.
• This is probably the most significant component of culture
because it allows us to communicate.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Components of Culture
Slide 7/7
• Language is so important that
many have argued that it shapes
not only our communication but our perceptions and how we see
things as well.
• The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, which is the idea that language
structures thought and that ways of looking at the world are
embedded in language, is based on this premise.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Culture Includes Values and Norms
• Values are shared beliefs about what a group considers
worthwhile or desirable; they guide the creation of norms.
• Norms are the rules regarding what kinds of behavior are
acceptable and appropriate within a culture.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Norms
• Norms:
• are specific to a culture, time period, and situation.
• can be either formal, such as a law or the rules for playing
soccer, or informal—not written down and unspoken.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Types of Norms
Slide 1/2
• Types of norms can be
distinguished by the strictness
with which they are enforced.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Types of Norms
Slide 2/2
•Folkway: a loosely enforced norm that involves
common customs, practices, or procedures that ensure
smooth social interaction and acceptance.
•More: a norm that carries moral significance, is closely
related to the core values of a group, and often involves
severe repercussions for violators.
•Taboo: a norm engrained so deeply that even thinking
about violating it evokes strong feelings of disgust,
horror, or revulsion for most people.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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How Do We Enforce Norms?
• Sanctions are positive or negative reactions to the ways that
people follow or disobey norms, including rewards for conformity
and punishments for norm violators.
• Sanctions help to establish social control, the formal and informal
mechanisms used to increase conformity to values and norms and
thus increase social cohesion.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Variations in Culture
• Multiculturalism values diverse racial, ethnic, national, and
linguistic backgrounds and thus encourages the retention of
cultural differences within society, rather than assimilation.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Dominant Culture
• The dominant culture refers to the values, norms, and practices of
the group within society that is most powerful in terms of wealth,
prestige, status, and influence.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Subcultures
• A subculture is a group within
society that is differentiated by
its distinctive values, norms, and
lifestyle.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Countercultures
• A counterculture is a group within society that openly rejects, and
may actively oppose, society’s values and norms.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Cultural Change
• Cultures usually change slowly and incrementally, though change
can also happen in rapid and dramatic ways.
• At times, a subculture can influence the mainstream and become
part of dominant culture, or something that is dominant can
change to a counterculture.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Cultural Crossroads—
Concept Quiz
• It is easy for us to perceive our own culture and see how it shapes
and defines who we are.
• true
• false
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Cultural Crossroads—
Concept Quiz 1
• When a person uses his or her own culture as a standard to
evaluate another group or individual, this is called
• egotism.
• egocentrism.
• ethnocentrism.
• material culture.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Cultural Crossroads—
Concept Quiz 2
• Which of the following is a component of culture?
• material culture
• signs
• language
• symbolic culture
• All of the above are components of culture.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Cultural Crossroads—
Concept Quiz 3
• Which norm has the greatest moral significance?
• folkways
• pathways
• mores
• symbolic culture
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Cultural Crossroads—
Concept Quiz 4
• Which of the following groups within society openly rejects, and
may actively oppose, society’s values and norms?
• the dominant culture
• a subculture
• a counterculture
• a materialistic culture
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Cultural Crossroads—
Concept Quiz 5
• Ways of thinking and acting reflect a society’s
• dominant culture.
• material culture.
• symbolic culture.
• counterculture.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Cultural Crossroads—
Concept Quiz 6
• The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is the idea that language structures:
• actions.
• thoughts.
• technology.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Cultural Crossroads—
Concept Quiz 7
• Cultural diffusion, cultural leveling, and cultural imperialism are all
processes of
• ideal culture.
• real culture.
• social control.
• cultural change.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Chapter 3: Participation Question 1
• Many different cultures are present in America. Do you think
America is a “melting pot” or a “tossed salad?”
• “melting pot” (cultural leveling)
• “tossed salad” (cultural diffusion)
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Chapter 3: Participation Question 2
• In your opinion, technology’s impact on American culture has
been mainly
• positive.
• negative.
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Chapter 3: Participation Question 3
In your opinion, which of the following sports is the most
meaningful in America?
a. Figure skating
b. Football
c. “Quidditch”
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Chapter 3: Participation Question 4
Which of the following sports is most meaningful to students
whose identity is profoundly shaped by their love of all things Harry
Potter?
a. Figure skating
b. Football
c. “Quidditch”
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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Chapter 3: Data Workshop Activity
• Refer to “Data Workshop: Analyzing Media and Pop Culture” (page
89) to prepare for this activity.
• In a moment, we will review what existing sources you will use for
your content analysis.
• As you review these sources, ask yourself what messages or
themes you are noticing, and what these messages say about
society.
• Be prepared for a group discussion of findings!
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
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This concludes the Lecture
PowerPoint presentation for
Chapter 3
© 2018 W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
For more learning resources for The Real World, 6e, please visit:
digital.wwnorton.com/realworld6
44

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