Suggested Resolutions, Evaluation, and My Recommendations Essay

Section 4:

Suggested Resolutions, Evaluation, and My Recommendations. Discuss the various resolutions that have been tried, analyze why they failed, offer your own resolution plan including both short and long term elements. You should also include the citations that you plan to use in the section.

Section 5: Conclusion

Section 4: Suggested Resolutions, Evaluation, and My Recommendations (see chapter 11)

Discuss and evaluate resolutions presented by the cultural groups involved. What do they think will work and why. What do you think about these suggested resolutions? Do you see them as viable options? Why or why not?

Present a well-developed and specific plan for resolution. Include short-term and long-term aspects (i.e., if there is violence happening, that should stop immediately on all sides so that the parties can proceed to other stages of resolution). Think about what is effective in terms of changing behaviors and attitudes. Don’t give me the “Rodney King” version of “we should all get along” or “we should educate ourselves on the issue.” It is our challenge as people on the planet to figure out concretely how this is to be done! Yes, it is difficult, but resist the urge to say that problems cannot be resolved. And resist the urge to impose your cultural viewpoints onto others.

You may feel like you have little to offer in the way of insights. I mean, after all, if all those smart women and men can’t fix things, how are we expected to do so?! While feeling helpless and powerless might be an understandable response, I think you have something to offer here. I challenge you to take this seriously and practice the duties and responsibilities of today’s global citizens. You must integrate course concepts into this section.

An under-developed, unthoughtful resolution will cost you 10 points.

Section 5: Conclusion –Short summary and end the paper on an interesting note.

My Outline for entire essay although I just need section 4 and 5

Nigeria and LGBTQ laws

Section 1:

The conflict we will be discussing in our paper is the LGBTQ community in Nigeria and the laws that they have against the queer communitiy. The law has an impact on lives on many in the LGBTQ community through an increase in homophobic violence, police harrasments and arrests, challanges in healthcare, and reported cases of extortion and blackmail. This questions the ideology of human rights, and is a conflict because people are in danger for something that is out of their control. The laws in Nigeria, particularly the Same Sex Marriage ( Prohibition) Act of 2013, lead to greater endangerment to the people invovled, and in association with, the LGBTQ+ community. “The notional purpose of the SSMPA is to prohibit marriage between persons of the same sex. In reality, its scope is much wider. The law forbids any cohabitation between same-sex sexual partners and bans any “public show of same sex amorous relationship.” The SSMPA imposes a 10-year prison sentence on anyone who “registers, operates or participates in gay clubs, societies and organization” or “supports” the activities of such organizations. Punishments are severe, ranging from 10 to 14 years in prison” (Human Rights Watch, 2016). Nigeria is a federal republic, so the laws are set by the states, the government, and are overseen by the president. The government is run by elected representatives of the people. This means that those who are voting for these laws are at fault for this problem, in particular, the Islamic population which runs as the majority of residents. The Islamic religion is highly resentful of the pride community, as most religions are; however, the problem that resides here is that the resentment has drifted into the votes of representatives in the federal government, resulting in hateful laws.


Okanlawon, Kehinde. “Cultures of Public Intervention Regarding LGBTQ Issues after Nigeria’s Same-Sex Marriage Prohibition Act (SSMPA).” College literature 45.4 (2018): 641–651. Web.

Chimakonam, Jonathan O, and Ada Agada. “The Sexual Orientation Question in Nigeria: Cultural Relativism Versus Universal Human Rights Concerns.” Sexuality & culture 24.6 (2020): 1705–1719. Web.

Sekoni, Adekemi Oluwayemisi, Kate Jolly, and Nicola Kay Gale. “Hidden Healthcare Populations: Using Intersectionality to Theorise the Experiences of LGBT+ People in Nigeria, Africa.” Global public health 17.1 (2022): 134–149. Web.

Nigeria: Harsh law’s severe impact on LGBT community. Human Rights Watch. (2020, October 28). Retrieved April 25, 2022, from…

Lotter, J., & Fourie, P. (2020). Queer-on-queer Violence: Homopopulism & African LGBTQ Mobility. Politikon: South African Journal of Political Studies, 47(2), 176–195.…

Section 2:

The history of hate towards the LGBTQ+ community globally dates back to before the United States has ever been discovered. In more recent years, that hate has subsided in some countries. In political history, there have been three major global pro gay movements that have helped to shape the new laws that aid the pride community and grow acceptance. There was a movement in 1933, one that took place through the 1950s-60s, and the last taking place in the 1970s that stayed continuous to modern time. In 2011 and 2014, homophobic laws passed in Nigeria in which drew in attention from outside parties. There was negative attention constantly being brought on to the pride community by the African elite, and according to a scholarly article, “It was in the midst of this increasing negative attitude towards homosexuality by the African elite that Nigeria and Uganda, in January and February 2014 respectively, attracted world attention after they introduced strict laws outlawing homosexuality in their states”(Onapajo, H., & Isike, C. 2016). In a 2013 study, Africa was found to be the region with the most anti-gay states in the world. Since there has been a history of African leaders dehumanizing the LGBTQ+ community, Africa only sees the laws as something to follow. This is related to the norms diffusion theory, in which the leaders set the norms and the people in which they lead accept those norms as a way of life.

Citations :

EPPRECHT, M. (2014). Africa’s New Political Homophobia. Current History, 113(763), 203–204.…

Onapajo, H., & Isike, C. (2016). The Global Politics of Gay Rights: The Straining Relations between the West and Africa. Journal of Global Analysis, 6(1), 21–45.

MAALEJ RUSNAK, S. A. (2014). Reconciling Three Countries’ Current Laws with Human Rights in the Face of International Law. Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law, 20(1), 138–171.

Section 3:

Nigeria has strong cultural and moral values which is why they are so against the LGBTQ community. Nairobi and Kenya Christian and Muslim leaders in Nigera welcomed a controversal law that bans same-sex marriages and imposes a 14 year jail term for homosexual relations. The article Nigeria’s Religious Leaders Welcome Controversial Anti-Gay Law states “This is the right thing,” said the Rev. Musa Asake, general secretary of the Christian Association of Nigeria. “We don’t have to drift into a situation where we don’t have moral values because someone is giving us money.” Asake was referring to financial incentives from western nations which tied to the legal changes of homosexuality. They truly believe that what they are doing is the right thing because of their strong religious beliefs. This is what they have always known, that God created love to be between a man and a woman so their culture struggles with accepting anything else. Homophobia unites the muslims and christians in Nigeria and has become part of their culture. Punishing the gays is something that the Christian south and the Muslim north have in common. Another article titled Homophobia Unites Muslums and Christians in Nigeria states “The dominant role of religion is widely seen as the root of the country’s homophobic culture,” the board said, quoting from a border agency report. “Punishing gays is one of the few common themes that politicians can promote with equal zest in the mainly Christian south and the largely Muslim north.” The people in power are a huge part of this problem and its potential resolution.


Fredrick Nzwili | Religion News Service. “Nigeria’s Religious Leaders Welcome Controversial Anti-Gay Law.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 16 Jan. 2014,

“Homophobia Unites Muslims and Christians in Nigeria.” The World from PRX, 13 Feb. 2014,…

Section 4:

A huge reason for this issue is because of the people in power. One idea to resolve it could be having more people who are against it speak up and run for positions of power to contribute in making a change. This goes in part to the separation of religion and state. The African elites have strong religious backgrounds, identifying with them openly. Arguably, leaders of government should not condone their religion in laws on the basis of their own belief. This causes the issue in which is the topic of this paper. A solution that we may be offering is something that is based on the establishment clause known in the United States. The clause separates religion and states, but not religion and politics. Although African states aren’t forcing their religion on anyone, there are many indications of their persuasion just on the foundation of their laws. Perhaps that is what a new clause could be, no persuasion of religion by leaders. Article 7 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is the right of equality before the law, and this right is being violated in Nigeria, potentially leading to a universal jurisdiction.

Citations :

What are human rights? Human Rights Watch. (2020, October 28). Retrieved April 25, 2022, from…

Asogwa, K. C., Edeh, H. C., Ajah, A. C., Omeh, P. H., Asadu, M. I., Ogbuabor, D. C., & Ngwu, E. C. (2021). The state, End SARS protests and human rights violation in Nigeria. IKENGA: International Journal of Institute of African Studies, 22(2), 58–81.…


In conclusion the laws in Nigeria against the LGBTQ commuinity are unfair and have gone on for way too long. No one should feel unsafe or threatened for something that is out of their control. Throughout our paper we strive to discuss this conflict and come up with some resolutions, and recommendations on how to solve this issue.

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