The Image of A Woman Growing Powerful After Eating the Chocolate Analysis

Create a “Stage 3: Analysis” header at the top of the document.

Write a 2–3 page analysis of your work. Feel free to draw from the notes you wrote in Stage 1 and Stage 2 (FinalProject_Stage1 and 2 attachment). You will see 3 images in the FinalProject_Stage1 and 2 attachment. Please add all 3 images in the document. We are promoting Powerhouse Chocolates.

-What is the purpose of your work? Who is your audience? -How do the images “speak” to this audience in particular? How did you address culture, demographics, psychographics? –

-How do the images work together to support a visual theme or tell a narrative? How do they contribute to a sense of visual unity?

-How did you use perspective, composition, principles of design, color, imagery, and more to convey meaning? -Is your visual product ethical? List three ways in which you abided by ethical principles, such as ensuring fair and balanced representation, avoiding bias, avoiding image manipulation to deceive or distort the truth, and so forth. Is your visual product legal? Describe what you did to abide by copyright, ADA, and any other relevant laws. We did not require a transcript or closed captioning, but state whether your product would have included these. -Do you believe your visual product will fulfill its intended purpose? Why or why not? What could you have done differently?


UMGC. (n.d.). Lesson 5: Images and Influence. Retrieved April 16, 2022, from…

UMGC (n.d.) Symbolism and Iconography. Retrieved from April 1, 2022, from…University of Maryland Global Campus (2022).

Three Types of Audience Analysis.

This is where you can find ALL 3 Images……… Something as simple as a selfie shared by a friend or a photo of a club sandwich can be an
object of persuasion. Whether you consciously register it or not, every image that you
consume is trying to influence you to some degree. This is why we must always question
the images we see and the context in which they are being shared. For example, a friend
may have gotten “glammed up” to take a selfie that is all smiles and shared it on social
Course Resource
media to show how happy they are. However, you may know that your friend is actually
going through a difficult time in their life. Is the smiling selfie an accurate representation
Lesson 5: Images and Influence
of reality or is it staged and superficial? Is it being used to persuade a certain audience
Part A. The Persuasive Power of Images
Whatever the intent behind an image, it is important to understand the ways in which
that everything is OK?
images can be influential and even misleading, and where the gray areas are.
Stop for a moment and think of an advertisement you saw on TV or a photo in your social
media feed that made you feel something or want to do something. Was the image of a
product you wanted to buy? Was it a selfie shared by a friend or family member? Was it a
funny meme? If it depicted a food product, did it make you hungry? What kind of reaction
did you have? Why did you have this reaction?
How Do Different Types of Images Affect Us?
For an introduction to how different graphic media influence us, Chapter
4: Visual Truth, Visual Lies (
160) of Visual Persuasion is an illuminating read. Are photo ads more
“real” than line drawings? Is scotch whiskey more enticing when shown in
a comic book-style illustration or a luscious color photograph? Which
medium is best for promoting a social cause, and how? Pages 129–141
are especially germane to this part of the lesson.
Persuasion as a Goal of Visual Communication
The desire to persuade underlies much of our communication, whether spoken, written, or
Tourist Taking a Selfie
According to the Encyclopedia of Communication Theory (Littlejohn & Foss, 2009),
“Persuasion—the activity of creating, reinforcing, or modifying beliefs, attitudes, or
behaviors—is a major underlying motivation for human communication and the
fountainhead of communication studies.”
We will focus now on two different forms of visual persuasion, unintentional and
Unintentional Visual Persuasion
Ice Cream Parlor Hijinks
According to The Handbook of Communication Science, much persuasive discourse can
be seen in off-the-cuff responses” and does not require a strong degree of agency or
forethought on the part of the person generating the message (Berger, Roloff, & RoskosEwoldsen, 2010).
What this means is that most of the time we are not conscious that we are being
persuaded or that we are trying to persuade; the act of persuasion is unintentional. For
example, take the candid, off-the-cuff, photo above of the mother and her three sons. It
looks to be a quick family snapshot to show a silly moment. We may think nothing of it.
However, depending on the context and the audience, there could be unintentional layers
of persuasion, such as the fact that they are standing in front of a sign that says, “Ice
Cream and Coffee House.” Perhaps this persuades a viewer who is on a diet to think about
how they want to indulge in an ice cream; perhaps it persuades someone who is a mother
of girls that it would be more fun to have boys; perhaps it alienates a viewer who has a
different cultural background or depresses someone who is lactose-intolerant. The photo
Lucky Strike Box, Circa 1944
Source: Alf van Beem, Wikimedia Commons
could also, of course, persuade viewers that this is a fun family with an irreverent sense of
humor who enjoys spending time together.
These are all possible reactions that one may have to the seemingly innocent and silly
family photo; this family photo reinforces the notion that every image has the potential to
carry with it facets of unintentional persuasion.
Intentional Visual Persuasion
When the act of persuasion is intentional, the image’s color, composition, and use of
symbols and other elements can strategically influence our opinion or behavior.
“Persuasive efforts, especially those that are the product of marketing departments and
political campaigns, are carefully constructed and consciously orchestrated” (Berger,
Roloff, & Roskos-Ewoldsen, 2010).
Take for example the Lucky Strike cigarette box from 1944. The jade green color was
specifically chosen to target women and make smoking a non-taboo and seemingly posh
gesture. Edward Bernays, head of the marketing campaign for the American Tobacco
Company, came up with the idea to market this green color as fashionable for women. He
held events in which socialites of the time wore the same green color to produce an
association. This is a prime example of a conscious and carefully orchestrated intentional
persuasive effort by a marketing campaign.
The use of the green color for the Lucky Strike cigarette box “also gives a nod to the
fundamentally social nature of persuasion and how it is seen as a social skill” (Berger,
Roloff, & Roskos-Ewoldsen, 2010). The green color was used to promote the cigarettes in
a social way, calling upon consumers, especially women, to see the product as a way to
engage with and be part of high society. Consider what we learned in Week 3 about color
and how it can be used to communicate visually: The creators of ads are well-aware of
how color can be used to persuade.
Propaganda can be disseminated on posters, pamphlets, films, photos, ad campaigns, TV
shows, websites, news broadcasts, cartoons, comic strips, newspapers, radio shows,
YouTube channels, and so forth. In present society, bots and algorithms can be used to
create “computational propaganda,” which allows for fake and biased news to spread all
The Art of Appeal
over social media (Dziak, 2000; Wikipedia, n.d.a).
To learn more about the man behind the Lucky Strike box, browse the
Week 5 learning resource Public Relations or Propaganda? Edward
Bernays and the Founding of PR
/learning-resource-list/public-relations-or-propaganda–edward-bernaysand-the-founding-.html?ou=645036) . Find out how Bernays branded
cigarettes “torches of liberty” and bolstered the appeal of Ivory soap
through floating soap sculptures.
And, if you’re interested in advertising or public relations, either as a
consumer or as someone looking for a career path, browse Advertising
and Public Relations
ou=645036) . It’s worth it if only for the see-it-to-believe-it classic ads.
Part B. Visual Propaganda
The example above is a good segue into a specific persuasive tool: propaganda
According to Dziak (2020), propaganda is the “process of using words, images, and other
forms of communication to sway the opinions of others.” If you think this sounds like what
you just saw in the Lucky Strike ad, you’re right. Bernays freely used the term for his work.
Historically, propaganda had a positive connotation. It has its roots in the efforts of mostly
religious groups to spread—or propagate—their gospel.
Ever since World War II and the Nazi party’s use of the term, however, we typically
associate propaganda with attempts of authority figures, governments, and activist groups
to sway our views. We do not associate propaganda with objective messages, or even the
enticing displays used in advertisements. Rather, we understand it to consist of selected
facts—or carefully chosen imagery—to promote a group’s agenda. Because the contents
are biased and exclude alternative points of view, the message is one-sided and intends to
produce an emotional rather than a rational response from the viewer.
Examples: Propaganda in Indonesia
Below are some photos of propaganda posters taken by the lesson author. Note that
these posters each target a different audience.
You may infer from these examples that not all propaganda is “bad.” Just because it
presents one side in attempt to sway the viewer does not mean that the purpose is
always to harm or deceive.
Indonesian Nationalist Group, Poster, 1947
Poster from the collection of the National Archives of the Netherlands; Photo by Ding Ren
Above is a poster created in 1947 by an Indonesian nationalist group during the war
of independence against the Netherlands. This poster is an example of propaganda,
as it was designed to sway the opinion of the general public to the pro-revolution
side. By invoking the symbol of Borobudur (a ninth-century Buddhist temple in
central Java), the designers of the poster were trying to tap into the viewers’
national pride and connect an ancient past to the modern fight for independence.
Here, you can see the use of a cultural symbol used to reach a particular audience
for a very specific—and very persuasive—purpose!
Indonesian Nationalist Group, Poster in English, 1945
Source: Poster from the collection of the National Archives of the Netherlands; photo by Ding Ren.
This poster, also created during the Indonesian revolution, was designed with
American soldiers as the target audience; it is therefore written in English and has
references to freeing colonies. In 1945, shortly after the Japanese surrender, Allied
forces began re-taking formerly Japanese-occupied areas, including the Dutch
colony of Indonesia. Indonesian revolutionaries, fighting for independence from the
Dutch, expected American soldiers to arrive in Java, and thus focused their
propaganda on democracy and America’s own war of independence. Photographs
from the city of Surabaya (where this poster was found) also show quotes from the
Declaration of Independence and other slogans aimed at American soldiers.
How Does Propaganda Work?
Propaganda is not necessarily meant only for domestic consumption, as you saw with the
second example from WWII-era Indonesia, above. We will also see how the US federal
government used post-war modern art to showcase America as a place of free-thinkers, a
country where new art styles could flourish (in contrast to the Soviet Union). Exhibitions
that were originally shown in New York at the Museum of Modern Art later traveled
around Europe to promote American creativity and free-market liberalism.
1. Socialist Realism
Propaganda is used to persuade and manipulate, most commonly in a political or social
setting. Those on either side of a political or social issue often try to sway those who are
seemingly neutral to one side or the other. Commercially, an advertisement such as a TV
commercial or billboard may be used to place the idea of a product into a consumer’s
mind, whether they were intending to purchase the product or not. This can be seen in
the Lucky Strike example above, where the green color is placed in the target consumer’s
mind through social and sponsored marketing events. Think about what you learned in
Week 4 about demographics and psychographics. Bernays and his team induced a positive
feeling in women with a jade green color that paid off in cigarette sales!
How effective propaganda is therefore depends on the intended audience and how the
content is presented. The most direct kind of propaganda is focused on a well-defined
target audience. In the social cause arena, the main approach would be to convince a type
of voter with particular demographic and psychographic traits—perhaps an unmarried
male who resides in an urban area—that one reform issue is best solved in a particular way
and to support that side, either through a donation or with a vote. Oftentimes,
propaganda products attack the opposition by bringing up unfavorable information.
(Littlejohn & Foss, 2009)
Propaganda in History: A Few Examples
Propaganda dates back as far as recorded history. While today we view the term
negatively, it does not necessarily have to be a negative thing. All imagery meant to
persuade us, to impact our actions, can be seen as propaganda in some sense. In this
section, we will focus on a few historical examples from the twentieth century. During this
century, both communist and capitalist countries used imagery to influence their citizens
and espouse the benefits of their economic and political systems. We will see examples of
Socialist Realism Propaganda Example: The Green Bridge
(1) Socialist Realism, an art movement supported by the Soviet Union; (2) Chinese posters
developed during Mao Zedong’s Cultural Revolution, a period of radical social and political
upheaval in China; and (3) anti-Socialist ads created by the US government after World
In 1932, the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin made Socialist Realism the official state art
movement, with the government setting rules and standards for artists to follow. Focusing
on imagery of workers—laborers and farmers (the hammer and sickle)—Socialist Realism
War II.
can also be seen in the grand sculptures of socialist philosophers like Marx and Engels and
Soviet leaders like Lenin and Stalin that decorated Eastern Europe. According to the Salem
Press Encyclopedia, “workers were to be presented as heroes, capitalists as exploitative
and malevolent, and Stalin himself as a benevolent father or a brave leader” (Socialist
Realism, 2019).
The above photograph is an example of a Socialist Realist monument in Vilnius, Lithuania.
The man on the left holding the brick is meant to glorify construction, and the one on the
right holding the rocket is meant to celebrate industry. The heroic stance of these figures,
with arms open and knee propped up, is meant to persuade us that the working class
should be paid attention to.
2. Cultural Revolution
Following a period of political failures, Mao Zedong, Chairman of the Communist Party of
China, initiated the Cultural Revolution. This meant a complete repudiation of Chinese
historical-cultural legacies and the establishment of Mao as the center of a new cultural
epoch. The Revolution was a consolidation of power that led to the jailing and deaths of
those whom Mao deemed enemies or counterrevolutionaries.
Similar to Socialist Realist art, the art of the Cultural Revolution put the worker—and Mao
—at the center. As can be seen in the image below, a smiling Mao Zedong radiates like the
sun while happy workers, soldiers, and ethnic minorities march forward. Such posters had
government slogans printed on them, while also carrying clear visual messages for the
largely illiterate farmer population at which they were aimed. The posters were meant to
solidify Maoist thought among the people and influence the average Chinese citizen’s
view of the Communist Party. Read the below quote for a deeper understanding of the
aesthetics of the posters:
Chinese propaganda posters and related image forms used aesthetic and affective
techniques that helped legitimize the Party-State by closing the gap between
everyday experience and political ideology. Propaganda posters were designed to
create a new type of “political” subject wholly identified with the State, without any
interruption of “social” responses such as critique, desire, irony or resistance. They
were supposed to put into practice the aesthetic-political principle of unity, as
Cultural Revolution Propaganda Example: The Sunshine of Mao Zedong Thought
Illuminates the Path of the Great Proletariat Cultural Revolution
Ask Yourself
You read about some of the symbols used in Socialist Realism (the brick
symbolizing construction and the rocket symbolizing industry). Do you
see any symbolism in this image? Any culturally specific use of color or
imagery? Any design principles that confer meaning?
conceptualised by Mao. (Hemelryk, 2014)
3. USIA and Modern Art
Abstract Expressionism, a movement in post-war American modern art exemplified by
artists such as Jackson Pollock (1912–1956), was in many ways the opposite of Socialist
Realism and the propaganda art of communist states. For this reason, the United States
State Department and the United States Information Agency (USIA), along with the
Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York, organized traveling exhibitions of Abstract
Expressionist artists. While the work is not overtly
propaganda to our eyes, it was used to project American
Click the arrows to see more examples of propaganda, including in product promotion.
Ask yourselves, are these examples “innocent”? Or are they harmful or deceptive? Why do
you think so?
freedom and creativity in the face of communism (Segal,
A Few Easy Pieces of Propaganda
Below is a short video on the role of the federal
government in the war of propaganda between the
United States and Soviet Union. Note how the Ad
Council video goes beyond hyperbole in its exaggeration
of the issue. This is part of what makes it a piece of
propaganda: You are definitely not seeing a fair
treatment of both sides!
Jackson Pollock Drip-Painting
on the Floor
How the Ad Council and Federal Government Influenced America’s
Perception of Socialism After WWII
Oana Godeanu-Kenworthy, Associate Teaching Professor, American Studies at the
Department of Global and Intercultural Studies, Miami University in Ohio
World War II… Coca-Cola Fights On!
During World War II, Coca-Cola embarked on an international campaign to portray
This video excerpts cartoon strips produced by the Ad Council and the US government to
influence how Americans viewed the Soviets and their political ideology.
As you can see, the Cold War was fought on many different “battlefields.” A war of
ideologies comes down to public opinion and public mindsets, a fact exploited by leaders
and corporations around the world.
the beverage as an all-American product uniting people from all around the world.
Here, Coca-Cola is broadcasting its ability to help out on the home front, hydrating
women serving the war effort in factories.
World War II Victory Garden Poster
During World War II, the United States faced labor and transportation shortages and
therefore wanted families to grow their own fruits and vegetables. “Victory garden”
posters—and even the phrase itself—were meant to encourage home farming as a
patriotic activity. They also indirectly aided “…the war effort, and were considered a
civil ‘morale booster’…gardeners [felt] empowered by their contribution of labor and
rewarded by the produce grown.” (Retrieved from “Victory garden as a form of
propaganda?” (Wikipedia, n.d.b; Wessels Living History Farm, n.d.).
World War I John Bull Recruiting Poster
In this British World War I recruiting poster, the figure pointing a finger would have
been immediately recognizable as John Bull, a fictional embodiment of national
identity similar to the American Uncle Sam (Johnson, n.d.). Just in case the viewer is
Soviet Photo Alteration: Where’s Yezhov?
confused about his patriotic duty, Bull wears a vest embossed with a British flag.
power consolidation was purging members of the
Communist Party that Stalin deemed enemies. After their
During Stalin’s reign in the Soviet Union, a common form of
execution, the entire memory of the person had to be
removed. Photographs were manipulated to erase the
person, as can be seen in the example below, where Soviet
secret police official Nikolai Yezhov is removed from a
photograph of himself and Stalin (Smith, 2020).
Image manipulation is, of course, not confined to the past
or to leaders of foreign countries. As we discussed above,
producers of ads and other media use images to make the
viewer feel or act a certain way (be happy, donate now, buy
Yezhov Goes Missing
this, vote for me, etc.). This sometimes involves not just
producing images but altering them in ethically
questionable ways. Below we will discuss a few more recent examples of governmental
parties and media (mis)using and manipulating images.
TIME Magazine and OJ Simpson
Here’s a less recent but highly controversial example of image alteration, this time by a
media outlet. In 1994, TIME Magazine ran a story on the OJ Simpson trial after Simpson
Woman and Man in 1930s Soviet Poster
Here is some more Soviet art; this example is from a regional history museum in
had been accused of murdering his former wife, Nicole Brown, and her friend, Ronald
Goldman. TIME altered the photograph of OJ Simpson on its cover to make him look
darker. Many were quick to point out the racial implications—a blacker man would read
guiltier and more threatening to the intended audience—and to decry the magazine’s
choice. TIME denied any race-based motivations, stating that the magazine simply wanted
to make the cover visually compelling. Eventually, the managing editor issued an apology
(Schifellite, 2020).
Part C. Image Manipulation
So far, we’ve explored the concepts of visual persuasion and propaganda. What happens
when images are not just carefully organized or staged, but changed after production, to
affect how people think and feel about the subject of the image? Let’s take a little time to
look at a few examples of photo manipulation, or the alteration of photos after they’ve
been taken, starting with one of the most famous cases of Soviet photo manipulation used
to “erase” people from the historical record.
All magazines and newspapers—and media sites on the web—make image choices every
day to convey certain feelings or to create certain narratives. What photos are chosen in
the months before an election (a jubilant candidate, a sulking party member) tell us how
that source views the race and whom it favors. Persuasion through image choice is quite
standard in the media. Persuasion through image manipulation, as many believed TIME to
have attempted in the case above, is much different.
Canadian Green Party and the Water Cup
Our final example in this section concerns manipulation not by a governmental or media
entity, but by a political party. In 2019, the Canadian Green Party doctored an image on
its website showing party leader Elizabeth May holding a cup. The original cup was paper
and disposable, but party members changed the photograph to have it appear as a
reusable cup with a metal straw. The person who altered the photograph obviously
In an era of fake news and disinformation—especially online—we have to be active in
questioning the imagery that we see. How can we know that what we see represents
reality? Is what we are looking at accurate, unbiased, unaltered? Can we ever be sure
when all images, even those that are not manipulated, are in some way meant to be
manipulative and influence our emotions or behaviors?
wanted to heighten May’s environmental credentials and suggest to the viewer that the
party leader always carried a reusable cup with her rather than purchase a single-use
beverage container. May expressed shock and outrage at the manipulated photo while
Ethical considerations are often shrouded in shades of gray. Context and intent matter
when making ethical determinations. Often, the best way to approach ethical questions is
stating that the paper cup was compostable and thus did not need to be altered in the
to be informed, know your own ethical line, and be consistent in your decision-making
first place to appear environmentally friendly (Cecco, 2019).
process. For example, is there an ethical distinction between a sponsored Instagram post
by an influencer and Stalin’s use of photo manipulation to remove executed political
enemies from the historical record? At first, this question might appear laughable, and
quite obvious in its answer—of course there is a difference. But fundamentally, at their
core, both images are meant to influence our thinking or behavior, and therefore
Can You Spot a Fake?
The Week 5 learning resource Can People Identify Original and
Manipulated Photos of Real-World Scenes?
manipulate us in some way. If we think of the ethics of manipulation via images as a
continuum from social media posts all the way through to Soviet erasure, each one of us
would draw the line between ethical and not somewhere—perhaps we would all draw it at
a different point. Therefore, the question for you is, where do you draw the line?
provides a look at just how prevalent image manipulation
is—and what the implications are for the legal system and everyday life.
Part D. Images and Ethics
With all we’ve explored above, you may be asking yourself, “Where do I draw the line?
When is it okay to attempt to persuade with an image, and when am I being unethical?”
Image ethics can be defined as how we share, create, and consume images and the
decisions involved in doing so. On a very basic level, ethics are thought to be a kind of
code defining our personal decisions and placing them into categories such as good or
bad. As we all know, nothing is ever so easily categorized, and with roughly 7.3 trillion
digital photos being taken (, 2020), shared, and consumed in the year 2020
alone, we can’t possibly believe that every photo comes with the best ethical intentions
even if it couldn’t properly be called “bad.”
The following cases will help you define where to draw the line.
Ethical or Not? Two Civil War Case Studies
The Case of the Moved Body
As we have seen, manipulation of photographs is nothing new. In fact, it dates back
to the very earliest days of the medium. War photography is still a striking form of
documentary photography, meant to show the hardships and impact of warzones to
those outside them. War photographers are trying to tell a story—create a narrative.
Alexander Gardner, Plate 41. The Home of a Rebel Sharpshooter, 1863,
In the below example from the Library of Congress Civil War photograph collection,
we will see the work of photographer Alexander Gardner (1821–1882) and
members of his staff. Gardner was a Scottish immigrant and supporter of the Union
whose photographs were meant to highlight his patriotism and belief in Union
cause. While he is known for his photographs of the war, portraits of Abraham
Lincoln, and photographs of the execution of the plotters of Lincoln’s assassination,
we will read about a controversial side of his photography. Work in the 1970s by
historian William Frassanito uncovered cases of in which Gardner moved bodies and
portrayed the same corpses as Union or Confederate dead depending on the
narrative he was trying to portray. Is this ethical? Does knowing what Gardner did
Alexander Gardner, Alternate Exposure for Plate 40. A Sharpshooter’s Last
Sleep, 1863, photograph
change how we see his photographs? Does it alter the effect these photos have on
Click here to see the full version of each photo and to get a sense of the
overall composition and musket placement. You can enlarge each image by
On the left, see an excerpt from Plate 41, a photograph of a Confederate soldier
killed in the Battle of Gettysburg. Frassanito determined this soldier was the same
clicking it.
individual photographed in “A Sharpshooter’s Last Sleep,” viewed on the right as an
excerpt from Plate 40. Frassanito deduced that Gardner had moved this soldier from
the open battlefield to the more picturesque “sharpshooter’s den” shown in Plate
41. Furthermore, the musket picturesquely placed near the soldier in the photos was
not used by sharpshooters and is likely a prop Gardner employed. Frassanito makes
the case that this body may have been one of the last to be buried, leaving Gardner
with few subjects left and causing him to move the body for various photographs.
As the Library of Congress states, “Gardner’s story succeeded in transforming this
soldier into a particular character in the drama, a man who suffered a painful, lonely,
unrecognized death” (Library of Congress, n.d.a).
Alexander Gardner, Plate 41. The Home of a Rebel Sharpshooter, 1863,
Alexander Gardner, Alternate Exposure for Plate 40. A Sharpshooter’s Last
Sleep, 1863, photograph
Knowing that photographers employ techniques such as lighting, perspective, and
placement of items to present a cleaner or more dramatic narrative, one must
always ask: Is the true story being told? Where is the line between telling a story
and distorting the truth? In the above historic example, one could see the honor of
the soldier as being erased when the events leading to his death were re-staged for
effect. On the other hand, one could see Gardner’s artistry as giving meaning to the
soldier’s death and presenting a truer-than-life depiction of the devastation of war.
Gardner himself held that making strategic adjustments to a scene was no different
from the techniques studio photographers employed in creating portraits (Robinson,
The Case of Confused Identity
Our second example from Gardner and his staff concerns the identity of bodies as
either Union or Confederate soldiers (Library of Congress, n.d.b).
Click here to see the full version of each photo. You can enlarge each image by
clicking it.
Below you will see two photographs. Plate 36 on the left shows men identified by
Gardner as Confederate soldiers and traitors to the Union whose actions brought
them their death. Plate 37 shows soldiers identified by Gardner as Union soldiers.
Along with the photograph, Gardner included a description of the peaceful Union
dead, waxing poetic on the sacrifice made by the men. However, Frassanito shows
these two photographs to be of the same men, from simply a different angle.
On the photos below, the men are numbered, and you can also see the shape of a
diamond. In both photographs, the diamond is positioned above a piece of clothing
with a diamond badge—worn only by Union soldiers of the 3rd Corps. This was
Frassanito’s major clue as to the true identity of the soldiers. One can look at the
hand positions of the men and see they are the same in each photo.
Timothy O’Sullivan, Plate 36. Bodies of “Confederate” Soldiers, 1863,
Timothy O’Sullivan, Plate 36. Bodies of “Confederate” Soldiers, 1863,
Timothy O’Sullivan, Plate 37. Bodies of Union Soldiers, 1863, photograph
Ethics in Visual Communication
If you’re interested in ethics in advertising, the Week 5 learning resource
Epilogue: Ethics of Visual Persuasion (
(pp. 265–
274) of Visual Persuasion: The Role of Images in Advertising provides a
scholarly take on issues such as depicting sex appeal, when you can alter
images, and so forth.
In Verification and Deepfakes: The Ethics of Modern Photojournalism
/learning-resource-list/verification-and-deepfakes–the-ethics-ofmodern-photojournalism.html?ou=645036) , journalist Salim Amin
discusses potential bias in image selection—are we more comfortable
looking at grisly scenes from Africa than the United States?—and a few
other ethical considerations in the field.
Timothy O’Sullivan, Plate 37. Bodies of Union Soldiers, 1863, photograph
This analysis is based upon the pioneering work of the historian William Frassanito
(1975) in his book Gettysburg: A Journey in Time.
Summing up its study on Gardner, the Library of Congress states that
Part E. Techniques of Visual Persuasion
Here, we’ll explore a few ways in which photographers visually persuade. Some of these
involve actual manipulation of images and some involve the use of framing, lighting,
composition, and other techniques of visual design: In other words, what you show and
Photographers often want to communicate a thought or emotion with their
work. Although the camera lens views the world impartially, the photographer
how you show it.
constantly judges, deciding what to photograph and how to photograph it—
Photo Manipulation and Deepfakes
focusing on creating a strong image that will communicate the desired
message. The words that accompany a photograph may also influence the way
Photo manipulation or alteration, explored above, is a technique of visual persuasion. The
we “read” the picture. (Library of Congress, n.d.c)
powerful software that anyone with an internet connection has access to makes this
The above case studies of Civil War era photographs shows that seemingly true-tolife scenes were being staged, embellished, and doctored very early in the history of
If you’d like to learn more about the history and techniques, read the Salem Press
Encyclopedia entry on photo manipulation (
Take the example of the woman with the tattoo on her arm below. Because of digital
manipulation software, the viewer does not know if the woman has a tattoo on her arm or
not and what design is on her arm.
0:00 / 1:41
Introduction to Deepfakes
Charlotte Dungan, Program Architect, NCSSM’s Artificial
Intelligence program
Tattooed or Not?
Deepfake (
technology goes beyond traditional photo manipulation, relying on artificial intelligence
(AI) technologies to enable everyday computer users to manufacture convincing sounds,
static images, and moving images. You’ll learn more about deepfakes in Lesson 7, but the
More Techniques of Visual Deception
video below is a great introduction.
We direct you again to Chapter 4: Visual Truth, Visual Lies
160) of Visual Persuasion, in which the Visual Deception section starting
on page 142 rounds out your study of techniques used to persuade and
manipulate. Learn about staging, editing, mislabeling, and more. Although
somewhat dated in its content, the resource provides a thorough and
entertaining supplement to this part of the lesson.
Manipulated vs. Manipulative
It is important here to note the difference between a manipulated photo and a
manipulative one. In the first case (manipulated), it is the image itself that is being
altered or manipulated—for instance the tattoo photo above or the image of the
Canadian Green Party leader holding the water cup. In the second case
(manipulative), the photo is one where we, the audience, are the ones being
manipulated. One could make the argument that all photographs, all images, are
manipulative. They are all meant to invoke certain feelings, reactions, or memories in
the viewer. Manipulated photos are therefore also manipulative. We could
photoshop tattoos (manipulated) to make us appear tougher in a photo
(manipulative). The Canadian Green Party doctored images (manipulated) so that the
viewer would think the party leader always went about with a reusable cup and
straw (manipulative).
What You Show and How You Show It
Ball Game, Photo 1
There are other visual persuasion techniques that do not involve using technology to alter
the image, but rely on the way in which the photo is taken—vantage, framing, lighting,
Thomas Barwick / Stone Collection / Getty
background, and principles of composition and design.
Where, for example, do you place the viewer? Remember the photos of the two men
shown side-by-side in Lesson 2. How does it affect us when we’re looking up at someone
versus down? What if the person is scowling versus smiling? How is the scene framed—
that is, what is included and what is left out?
Depending on the vantage taken, a person can look wan or full of dynamism, a facial
expression can betoken boredom or solemnity, and an event can look fun or tedious. The
use of symbols such as a baseball cap, an apple, or an angel statue can shift our emotions
as well.
Take the image below. This ball game looks well-attended.
But the camera pulls back, revealing that these fun-loving people are the only folks
Case Study: Visual Principles and Influence
When composed effectively enough, images can become iconic, engrained in our
collective memory, and can influence the way we feel and the way we remember
people, products, and events.
We’ve seen in this lesson how color, symbolism, composition, and framing can be
persuasive tools; we’re going to focus here on other visual principles and how they
can be used to give an image sticking power.
You are likely familiar with the photo below.
Ball Game, Photo 2
Thomas Barwick / Stone Collection / Getty
We would feel differently still if the camera moved to the right to show crying children or
an angry coach or a gathering flock of pigeons. Framing matters, lighting matters, and
camera placement matters.
Photo 1 of Flag Raising on Iwo Jima, 1945
While this is the most famous flag-raising photo of the Battle of Iwo Jima (1945)—
and the photo that became iconic—it is not the only photo of a flag raising during
the battle.
Here is another:
Photo 1 of Flag Raising on Iwo Jima, 1945
Photo 2 of Flag Raising on Iwo Jima, 1945
Why is the top photo (taken by AP photographer Joe Rosenthal) more engrained in
our collective memory of the battle than any other? What led it to become the
definitive photo of the Battle of Iwo Jima?
A lot has to do with the use of visual principles.
Here are two photos again. You can click them to enlarge them.
1) has a strong sense of balance to it, with the soldiers and flag creating a triangular
shape in the center of the photograph. This visual triangle acts like the rule of thirds,
a classic photographic compositional tool, and draws the viewer’s attention into the
photograph immediately. In Photo 2, there is no obvious visual triangle and
therefore not the same sense of balance.
These are just a few of the visual principles that make Photo 1 the stronger
photograph than Photo 2—so strong that it is the basis of a memorial sculpture in
Washington, DC. When someone says “Battle of Iwo Jima,” Photo 1 is the image
that appears in our minds.
Part F. What Does All This Mean to Me?
As a visual producer, you’ll want to be mindful of the ways in which you produce and
display imagery. As a consumer, you’ll want to ask yourself if you’re being persuaded—or
manipulated—and be mindful of how.
What Images Do I Use?
You may find yourself asking this question when you are deciding what to post to your
social media accounts—if you choose to use them, that is.
You have likely heard the term “influencer” as it relates to social media. Whether you’re
paid for it or not, if you use social media, you’re an influencer. To be a more mindful
influencer, you can begin by asking questions such as: Are photos of friends and family
members, selfies, and snapshots of pets candid or staged? Is what you are seeing an actual
happy moment, or is it very posed? Are you or your family members sharing only the
Photo 2 of Flag Raising on Iwo Jima, 1945
In Photo 1, the strong diagonal line that the flagpole creates acts as a leading line,
which balances the composition and leads the eye from the bottom right-hand
corner of the photograph to the top left-hand corner. This creates a sense
of movement and energy that communicates the struggle the soldiers are exerting
to raise the flag. In Photo 2, the flagpole is standing straight, and therefore does not
communicate the same sense of movement. Secondly, the iconic photograph (Photo
“shiny” moments and hiding the conflicts? Or are you depicting moments of gloom or
tension to make your life look more dramatic than it is? Arranging various items for
comedic effect? What do you owe your audience in the way of photo-realism, given that
the purpose of social media is to put your life into a narrative framework, and does your
audience even want this?
From personal to professional to political, images are chosen based on intentions and
oftentimes used to persuade the viewer in some way. It’s a good idea to get into the habit
of asking yourself questions like those above as you’re choosing what images to share.
It is important to question the images we look at and ask ourselves whether they are
How Real Is It, Anyway? The Case of the Dubious Influencer Photo
influencing us and, if so, to what end. First, we must consider the context of the image.
Check the source. Does the producer of the image have an agenda? How nefarious is this
agenda? The agenda could be fairly benign, as with your friend with the happy selfie. Or, it
could be to ridicule someone, to make a bad product look good, or to present an event in
a false light. It could also be that the image was created without an agenda, but is being
used by a publisher who is distorting the original message, or vice-versa. It’s one thing for
the photo of Stalin’s “erased” friend to appear in an encyclopedia entry about photo
manipulation, but another for the photo to appear in its original context as if Yezhov never
Online, images are often re-posted and even manipulated without reference to the source.
How can we then “read” the images in their proper context? The answer is: We often
cannot. This is why we must always have a critical eye toward the images that we
consume. Who created the image? What is this individual trying to tell us? Is the
individual trying to sell us something? What narrative is he or she trying to build? Who
benefits from the image shown? And, finally, what is the creator trying to communicate
through the use of visual principles, framing, perspective, and other techniques?
Loving This Smoothie So Much!
Berger, C. R., Roloff, M. E., & Roskos-Ewoldsen, D. R. (2010). The handbook of
The above photo is hash-tagged “#travelphotography” and a good example of a
social media-worthy post that an influencer might post to share about his or her
vacation. The tilted composition communicates that the photo is a quick snapshot
and therefore unstaged. We as the viewer do not know how many versions of the
photo were taken and whether this is the only one or not. However, the caption of
the photo reads, “Loving this smoothie so much!” but if you look closely, it shows a
full smoothie cup and a full coffee, so can we really believe the caption when she
has barely made a dent in the smoothie she is drinking? Because the photo is bright
and the pink smoothie cup looks inviting while it’s being held by the happy woman,
it is easy to overlook the discrepancy with the image caption and be persuaded that
this is indeed a tasty smoothie and that this café is worth a visit if you are ever in
communication science. SAGE Publications, Inc.
Cecco, L. (2019). Canada’s Green Party alters photo of leader using single-use cup. The
Dziak, M. (2020). Propaganda. Salem Press Encyclopedia.
Frassanito, W. (1975). Gettysburg: A journey in time. Charles Scribner’s Sons.
Hemelryk, D. S. (2014). Red aesthetics, intermediality and the use of posters in Chinese
cinema after 1949. Asian Studies Review, 38(4), 658–675.
What Images Do I Believe?
Johnson, B. (n.d.). John Bull. Historic UK.
Library of Congress. (n.d.a). The case of the moved body.
Silhouette of a Tourist Girl Taking a Selfie
Library of Congress. (n.d.b). The case of confused identity.
modified this work.
Library of Congress (n.d.c). Does the camera ever lie?
Littlejohn, S. W., & Foss, K. A. (Eds.). (2009). Encyclopedia of communication theory. (Vols.
1–2). SAGE Publications, Inc. (2020). How many photos will be taken in 2020?
Robinson, L. (n.d.). History of photography: Brady, Gardner, and the Civil War. Photofocus.
Schifellite, C. J. (2020). Time Magazine cover uses altered O. J. Simpson photo. Salem
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Segal, J. (2016). Art and politics: Between purity and propaganda. Amsterdam University
Smith, D. G. (2020). Photograph alteration detection. Salem Press Encyclopedia of
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Wessels Living History Farm. (n.d.). Victory gardens.
by Cristian
Ungureanu from Flickr is available under a CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain
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by The
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Wikipedia. (n.d.a). Propaganda.
The Green Bridge (
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Dedication (
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Gender can define human experience. Clearly, most women have had a different cultural
experience from that of men within the same culture. Some women have found
themselves excluded from certain careers. Some men have found themselves blamed for
the limitations imposed on women. In books such as You Just Don’t
Learning Resource
Understand and Talking from 9 to 5, linguist Deborah Tannen has written extensively on
differences between men’s and women’s communication styles. Tannen explains,
Three Types of Audience Analysis
This is not to say that all women and all men, or all boys and girls, behave any one
In this resource, you’ll learn how to do the following:
and understanding its influence can help clarify what happens when we talk.
way. Many factors influence our styles, including regional and ethnic backgrounds,
family experience and individual personality. But gender is a key factor,
(Tannen, 1994)
understand how to gather and use demographic information
understand how to gather and use psychographic information
understand how to gather and use situational information
While audience analysis does not guarantee against errors in judgment, it will help you
make good choices in messaging. The more you know about your audience, the better you
can serve its interests and needs.
Demographic Analysis
Demographic information includes factors such as gender, age range, marital status, race
and ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.
Marriage tends to impose additional roles on both men and women and divorce even
more so, especially if there are children. Even if your audience includes young adults who
have not yet made occupational or marital commitments, they are still aware that gender
and the choices they make about issues such as careers and relationships will influence
their experience as adults.
In past generations, Americans often used the metaphor of a melting pot to symbolize the
assimilation of immigrants from various countries and cultures into a unified, harmonious
American people. Today, we are aware of the limitations in that metaphor, and have
largely replaced it with a multiculturalist view that describes the American fabric as a
patchwork or a mosaic. We know that people who immigrate do not abandon their
cultures of origin in order to conform to a standard American identity. In fact, cultural
continuity is now viewed as a healthy source of identity.
There are certain things you can learn about an audience based on age. For instance, if
your audience includes first-year college students, you can assume that they have grown
up in the post-9/11 era and have limited memory of what life was like before the War
on Terror. If your audience includes people in their 40s and 50s, it is likely they remember
a time when people feared they would contract the AIDS virus from shaking hands or
using a public restroom. People who are in their 60s today came of age during the 1960s,
the era of the Vietnam War and a time of social confrontation and experimentation. Each
group will have frames of reference that contribute to the way they think, but it may not
be easy to predict which issues they support.
We also know that subcultures and cocultures exist within and alongside larger cultural
groups. For example, while we are aware that Native American people do not all embrace
the same values, beliefs, and customs as mainstream white Americans, we also know that
members of the Navajo nation have different values, beliefs, and customs from those of
members of the Sioux or the Seneca. We know that African American people in urban
centers like Detroit and Boston do not share the same cultural experiences as those living
in rural Mississippi. Similarly, white Americans in San Francisco may be culturally rooted in
the narrative of distant ancestors from Scotland, Italy, or Sweden or in the experience of
having emigrated much more recently from Australia, Croatia, or Poland.
Not all cultural membership is visibly obvious. For example, people in German American
and Italian American families have widely different sets of values and practices, yet others
may not be able to differentiate members of these groups. Differences are what make
each group interesting and are important sources of knowledge, perspective, and
and goes to the gym daily. The more you know about the associations of your audience
members, the better prepared you will be to tailor your speech to their interests,
expectations, and needs.
Education is expensive, and people pursue education for many reasons. Some people seek
to become educated, while others seek to earn professional credentials. Both are
There is wide variability in religion as well. The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life
found in a nationwide survey that 84 percent of Americans identify with at least one of a
dozen major religions, including Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism, and
important motivations. If you know the education levels attained by members of your
audience, you might not know their motivations, but you will know to what extent they
could somehow afford the money for an education, afford the time to get an education,
others. Within Christianity alone, there are half a dozen categories including Roman
Catholic, Mormon, Jehovah’s Witness, Orthodox (Greek and Russian), and a variety of
Protestant denominations. Another 6 percent said they were unaffiliated but religious,
and survive educational demands successfully.
meaning that only one American in 10 is atheist, agnostic, or “nothing in
particular” (Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, 2008).
very different kind of education and training from that of an accountant or a software
engineer. This means that not only the attained level of education but also the particular
field is important in your understanding of your audience.
Even within a given denomination, a great deal of diversity can be found. For instance,
among Roman Catholics alone, there are people who are devoutly religious, people who
self-identify as Catholic but do not attend mass or engage in other religious practices, and
others who faithfully make confession and attend mass but who openly question Papal
doctrine on various issues. Among immigrants from the Caribbean and Brazil, Catholicism
is often blended with indigenous religion or with religion imported from the west coast of
Africa. It is very different from Catholicism in the Vatican.
The dimensions of diversity in the religion demographic are almost endless, and they are
not limited by denomination. Imagine conducting an audience analysis of people
belonging to an individual congregation rather than a denomination: Even there, you will
most likely find a multitude of variations that involve how one was brought up, adoption
of a faith system as an adult, how strictly one observes religious practices, and so on.
Yet, even with these multiple facets, religion is still a meaningful demographic lens. It can
be an indicator of probable patterns in family relationships, family size, and moral
Group Membership
Groups include professions, clubs, hobbies, interests, and so on. For instance, a thirdgrade teacher who is part of an Irish step dancing team and kayaks on the weekends
might have different values and interests from an IT professional who is a football fanatic
The kind of education is also important. For instance, an airplane mechanic undergoes a
People choose occupations for reasons of motivation and interest, but their occupations
also influence their perceptions and their interests. There are many misconceptions about
most occupations. For instance, many people believe that teachers work an eight-hour
day and have summers off. When you ask teachers, however, you might be surprised to
find out that they take work home with them for evenings and weekends, and during the
summer, they may teach summer school as well as taking courses in order to keep up with
new developments in their fields. But even if you don’t know those things, you would still
know that teachers have had rigorous generalized and specialized qualifying education,
that they have a complex set of responsibilities in the classroom and the institution, and
that, to some extent, they have chosen a relatively low-paying occupation.
If your audience includes doctors and nurses, you know that you are speaking to people
with differing but important philosophies of health and illness. Learning about those
occupational realities is important in avoiding wrong assumptions and stereotypes. We
insist that you not assume that nurses are merely doctors lite. Their skills, concerns, and
responsibilities are almost entirely different, and both are crucially necessary to effective
health care.
Psychographic Analysis
Earlier, we mentioned psychographic information, which includes such things as values,
opinions, attitudes, and beliefs. Authors Grice and Skinner present a model in which
values are the basis for beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Values are the foundation of their
It’s important to know your audience in order to make a rational judgment about how
their views of your topic might be shaped. In speaking to an audience that might have
differing definitions, you should take care to define your terms in a clear, honest way.
pyramid model. They say,
A value expresses a judgment of what is desirable and undesirable, right and wrong,
At the opposite end from oversimplification is the level of sophistication your audience
might embody. Your audience analysis should include factors that reveal it. Suppose you
or good and evil. Values are usually stated in the form of a word or phrase. For
example, most of us probably share the values of equality, freedom, honesty,
fairness, justice, good health, and family. These values compose the principles or
are speaking about trends in civil rights in the United States. You cannot pretend that
standards we use to judge and develop our beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. (Grice &
Skinner, 2009)
much progress has been made, there are still pockets of prejudice, discrimination, and
advancement of civil rights is virtually complete nor can you claim that no progress has
been made. It is likely that in a college classroom, the audience will know that although
violence. When you speak to an audience that is highly educated on your topic, your
strategy must be different from one you would use for an audience that is less
It is important to recognize that, while demographic information is fairly
educated in that domain. With a sophisticated audience, you must acknowledge the
straightforward and verifiable, psychographic information is much less clear-cut. Two
different people who both say they believe in equal educational opportunity may
overall complexity while stating that your focus will be on only one dimension. With an
audience that’s uninformed about your topic, that strategy could confuse them; they
have very different interpretations of what equal opportunity means. People who say they
might well prefer a black-and-white message with no gray areas. You must decide whether
it is ethical to represent your topic this way.
don’t buy junk food may have very different standards for what specific kinds of foods are
considered junk food.
When you prepare to do your audience analysis, include questions that reveal how much
We also acknowledge that people inherit some values from their family upbringing,
your audience already knows about your topic. Try to ascertain the existence of
cultural influences, and life experiences. The extent to which someone values family
loyalty and obedience to parents, thrift, humility, and work may be determined by these
stereotyped, oversimplified, or prejudiced attitudes about it. This could make a difference
in your choice of topic or in your approach to the audience and topic.
influences more than by individual choice.
Preexisting Notions About You
Psychographic analysis can reveal preexisting notions that limit your audience’s frame of
reference. By knowing about such notions ahead of time, you can address them in your
speech. Audiences are likely to have two basic kinds of preexisting notions: those about
the topic and those about the speaker.
Preexisting Notions About Your Topic
People form opinions readily. For instance, we know that students form impressions of
teachers the moment they walk into classrooms on the first day. They get an immediate
impression of the teacher’s age, competence, and attitude simply from the
teacher’s appearance and nonverbal behavior. In addition, many have heard other
students say what they think of us.
Many things are a great deal more complex than we realize. Media stereotypes often
contribute to our oversimplifications. For instance, one of the authors of this learning
The same is almost certainly true of you. But it’s not always easy to get others to be
honest about their impressions of you. They’re likely to tell you what they think you want
resource, teaching public speaking in the past decade, was surprised to hear a student
to hear. Sometimes, however, you do know what others think. They might think of you as
claim that “the hippies meant well, but they did it wrong.” Aside from the question of
the “it” that was done wrong, there was a question about how little the student actually
a jock, a suit-wearing conservative, a nature lover, and so on. Based on these impressions,
your audience might expect a boring speech, a shallow speech, a sermon, and so on.
knew about the diverse hippie cultures and their aspirations. The student seemed
However, your concern should still be serving your audience’s needs and interests, not
unaware that some of “the hippies” were the forebears of such things as organic bakeries,
natural food co-ops, urban gardens, recycling, alternative energy, wellness, and other
debunking their opinions of you or managing your image. In order to help them be
receptive, address their interests directly, and make sure they get an interesting, ethical
arguably positive developments.
Situational Analysis
damage and the anticipated cost and time required for repairs. At the same time, it would
be needlessly upsetting to launch into a graphic description of injuries suffered by people,
The next type of analysis is called the situational audience analysis because it focuses on
characteristics related to the specific speaking situation. The situational audience analysis
can be divided into two main questions:
How many people came to hear my speech and why are they here? What events,
concerns, and needs motivated them to come? What is their interest level, and what
else might be competing for their attention?
animals, and property in neighboring areas not connected to your condominium complex.
Some of the most successful speeches benefit from situational analysis to identify
audience concerns related to the occasion. For example, when the president of the United
States gives the annual State of the Union address, the occasion calls for commenting on
the condition of the nation and outlining the legislative agenda for the coming year. The
speech could be a formality that would interest only “policy wonks,” or with the use of
good situational audience analysis, it could be a popular event reinforcing the connection
What is the physical environment of the speaking situation? What is the size of the
audience, layout of the room, existence of a podium or a microphone, and
between the president and the American people.
availability of digital media for visual aids? Are there any distractions, such as traffic
In January 2011, knowing that the United States’ economy was slowly recovering and that
jobless rates were still very high, President Barack Obama and his staff knew that the
Audience Size
focus of the speech had to be on jobs. Similarly, in January 2003, President George W.
Bush’s State of the Union speech focused on the “war on terror” and his reasons for
justifying the invasion of Iraq. If you look at the history of State of the Union Addresses,
In an audience of 20 to 30 listeners, you have the latitude to be relatively informal within
the bounds of good judgment. It isn’t too difficult to let each audience member feel as
you’ll often find that the speeches are tailored to the political, social, and economic
situations facing the United States at those times.
though you’re speaking to him or her. However, you would not become so informal that
you allow your carefully prepared speech to lapse into shallow entertainment. With larger
audiences, it’s more difficult to reach out to each listener, and your speech will tend to be
Voluntariness of Audience
more formal, staying more strictly within its careful outline. You will have to work harder
A voluntary audience gathers because they want to hear the speech, attend the event, or
to prepare visual and audio material that reaches the people sitting at the back of the
room, including possibly using amplification.
participate in an event. Captive audiences are required to be present or feel obligated to
nonattendance will keep audience members from leaving. The audience’s relative
perception of choice increases the importance of holding their interest.
do so. Given the limited choices perceived, a captive audience might give only grudging
attention. Even when there’s an element of choice, the likely consequences of
There are many occasions for speeches. Awards ceremonies, conventions and
conferences, holidays, and other celebrations are some examples. However, there are also
less joyful reasons for a speech, such as funerals, disasters, and the delivery of bad news.
As always, there are likely to be mixed reactions. For instance, award ceremonies are good
for community and institutional morale, but we wouldn’t be surprised to find at least a
little resentment from listeners who feel deserving but were overlooked.
Likewise, for a speech announcing bad news, it is likely that at least a few listeners will be
Whether or not the audience members chose to be present, you want them to be
interested in what you have to say. Almost any audience will be interested in a topic that
pertains directly to them. However, your audience might also be receptive to topics that
are indirectly or potentially pertinent to their lives. This means that if you choose a topic
such as advances in the treatment of spinal cord injury or advances in green technology,
you should do your best to show how these topics are potentially relevant to their lives or
glad the bad news wasn’t even worse. If your speech is to deliver bad news, it’s important
to be honest but also to avoid traumatizing your audience. For instance, if you are a
condominium board member speaking to a residents’ meeting after the building was
damaged by a hurricane, you will need to provide accurate data about the extent of the
However, there are some topics that appeal to audience curiosity even when it seems
there’s little chance of direct pertinence. For instance, topics such as Blackbeard the pirate
or ceremonial tattoos among the Maori might pique the interests of various audiences.
Depending on the instructions you get from your instructor, you can consider building an
interesting message about something outside the daily foci of our attention.
Physical Setting
The physical setting can make or break even the best speeches, so it is important to
exercise as much control as you can over it. Seek out any opportunity to rehearse your
speech during a minute when the room is empty. If you will be giving your presentation
somewhere else, it is a good idea to visit the venue ahead of time if at all possible and
make note of any factors that will affect how you present your speech. In any case, be
sure to arrive well in advance of your speaking time so that you will have time to check
that the microphone works, to test out any visual aids, and to request any needed
adjustments in lighting, room ventilation, or other factors to eliminate distractions and
make your audience more comfortable.
Grice, G. L., & Skinner, J. F. (2009). Mastering public speaking: The handbook (7th ed.).
Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. (2008, February). Summary of key findings. In U.S.
religious landscape survey.
Tannen, D. (1994, December 11). The talk of the sandbox: How Johnny and Suzy’s
playground chatter prepares them for life at the office. The Washington
Licenses and Attributions
Three Types of Audience Analysis (
from Public
Speaking: Practice and Ethics is available under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (
license without attribution as requested by the site’s original creator or
licensee. UMGC has modified this work and it is available under the original license.
© 2022 University of Maryland Global Campus
All links to external sites were verified at the time of publication. UMGC is not responsible for the validity or integrity
of information located at external sites.
Stage 1: Proposal
Dark Chocolate is the product I would like to create or sell. I was thinking of possibly calling the
dark chocolate that I would be advocating, ‘Powerhouse Chocolates.’ It is possible to maintain a healthy
balanced lifestyle while eating chocolate, dark chocolate. Dark chocolate is abundant in iron,
magnesium, and zinc; there are many health benefits associated with this product. The Journal of the
International Society of Sports Nutrition published an article suggesting that athletes that consumed a
little dark chocolate boosted their oxygen levels during training. Scientists that studied the athletes
during their training found that the athletes used less oxygen while working at a moderate pace and
covered more distance in a two-minute period after consuming dark chocolate (Patel, R.K., Brouner, J. &
Spendiff, O., 2015). The researchers contributed the success of chocolate due to the flavonols and
nutrients that dark chocolate contains.
The purpose of pushing this product is to promote long-term health and longevity amongst
consumers; strongly urging consumers to choose dark chocolate as opposed to milk chocolate. My
target audience would include American adults (of all races and genders) ranging from 21-50 years old in
poor physical health that are seeking to maintain a healthier lifestyle.
I will utilize intentional visual persuasion. According to Berger, Roloff, & Roskos-Ewoldsen (2010)
product of marketing departments and political campaigns, are carefully constructed and consciously
orchestrated (persuasive efforts). I fully intend on persuading my audience by showing active, attractive,
healthy looking people eating chocolate. If I am going to advocate dark chocolate as a healthier
alternative, then I must include pictures that correlate with the notion. I will use symbolism to connect
with my audience by using specific figural images, or abstracted graphic signs that hold shared meaning
within a group (UMGC, 2022). For example, if an individual is seen sitting on a workout bench one could
assume that the individual is in the gym. A bar of chocolate can also be seen as a symbol of satisfying
one’s sweet tooth or craving.
Stage 2: Image Selection
Figure 1: Eating dark chocolate as a daily snack could help boost athletic performance (Friedrich, 2020)
There is not a copyright on the image. I am targeting men and women alike from 21-50 years of age of
all ethnicities. The visual is telling a story of fitness and chocolate, bringing the two together in
matrimony. Body shape/size and physical ability are depicted in this image. This woman is clearly
physically active holding a bar of chocolate. Judging by her facial expression she is exerting power and is
dedicated to her craft.
Figure 2: Why Dark Chocolate Loves Your Heart and Mind (2020)
There is not a copyright on the image. There is inclusivity in the way health (specifically heart health) is
depicted. The story that the visual is telling is that dark chocolate is great for the heart. Studies have
shown the benefits of dark chocolate: increasing the blood flow to brain, improving insulin sensitivity
and sugar levels, reducing LDL cholesterol, and decreasing risk of heart disease development.
Figure 3: Chocolate may help athletes cover more distance while using less oxygen.
There is not a copyright on the image. Body shape/size, physical ability and geographic setting are all
depicted in this image. A man is shown eating a bar of dark chocolate in the gym. The visual is telling a
story of chocolate and fitness. Letting the audience know that it is perfectly acceptable to eat chocolate
prior to working out. There are benefits to eating dark chocolate before working out such as boosting
the availability of oxygen in athletes. The visual shows the athlete being satisfied with the chocolate bar;
this action is empowering to the consumer.
Can ingredients in dark chocolate improve exercise capacity? Cathe Friedrich. (2020, October 18).
Retrieved April 26, 2022, from
Nordqvist, J. (2018, July 18). Chocolate: Health benefits, facts, and research. Medical News Today.
Retrieved April 26, 2022, from
Patel, R.K., Brouner, J. & Spendiff, O. Dark chocolate supplementation reduces the oxygen cost of
moderate intensity cycling. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 12, 47 (2015).
Why dark chocolate loves-your heart and mind. St. Luke’s University Health Network. (2020, July 31).
Retrieved April 26, 2022, from
UMGC. (n.d.). Lesson 5: Images and Influence. Retrieved April 16, 2022, from
UMGC (n.d.) Symbolism and Iconography. Retrieved from April 1, 2022, from

Can Ingredients in Dark Chocolate Improve Exercise Capacity?……

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