UF USA Student Debt Nightmare Discussion

AssignmentsOur policy briefs topic: (U.S GIVERNMENT SHOULD CABCEL ALL STUDENTS DEBT?
A. Policy Briefs: You will be paired with other students, and assigned a policy topic and position
(affirmative or negative). E.g. Affirmative: Medicaid coverage should be extended to individuals
within 200% of the poverty line. Negative: Medicaid coverage should not be extended to individuals
within 200% of the poverty line. The team will write a single policy brief on the topic, explicating the
issue and your assigned position. Policy briefs require a succinct synthesis of available literature on
various policy options related to a specific topic. They are useful to audiences that have a relatively
short amount of time to make an informed decision about a policy. The policy briefs will be NO
LONGER than three pages and will adequately address the issue. The purpose this assignment is to
expand your breadth of knowledge related to social problems and social policies relevant to social
work practice. The briefs are to be submitted to the professor via Canvas by 5:00pm on Tuesday
before the presentation. Note: Cover sheets are required. Students that have not been assigned a
topic for that week will read and critique your brief.
1- Please do my part in this assignment it is highlighted by yellow color. It is only half page for all
my parts but should be a single space
2- 3 pages only
3- Student work will be judged on grammar, clarity of writing/presentation, clear organization
of ideas, and ability to incorporate class readings and lectures in all assignments.
4- All written assignments should be double spaced in no larger than 12-point type size. Please
number pages and proofread your papers. Margins for written assignments should be one
inch all around. Failure to follow these guidelines will result in points off for the assignment.
5- APA 6th Edition style is to be strictly followed in all written work. This means not only proper
bibliographic style but also to matters of expression of ideas, grammar, etc.
6- Appropriate referencing is required on all written assignments. Failure to use quotation marks
for short quotations or indentations for longer, direct quotes without appropriate citations
will result in a grade of zero as will failure to provide citations for indirect quotation. See also
other appropriate university publications for penalties that may result from scholastic
dishonesty such as plagiarism or cheating on tests. If you do not understand how to reference
a paper, now is the time to learn. Please seek assistance before you submit your assignments.
Guidelines for Writing a Policy Brief A policy brief, however, requires succinct consideration of policy
options for a particular audience (e.g., officials, bureaucrats, politicians, development practitioners,
Components of a Policy Brief Please use the following nine components as guidelines for phrasing the
sub-headings in the brief.
1. Executive Summary: This should be a short summary (approx. 100 words) of the purpose of the
brief and its recommendations.
2. Statement of the Issue: Re-phrase the assigned question as a policy statement given your
assigned position: Example: Should {any organization/government of your choice} provide
humanitarian assistance to people in the {any war zone/natural disaster situation of your
choice}? Affirmative Statement: The Galactic Republic should provide humanitarian assistance
to the people of Naboo. Negative Statement: The Galactic Republic should not provide
humanitarian assistance to the people of Naboo.
3. Background (of the problem): Include only the essential facts that a decision maker “needs to
know” to understand the context of the problem. Assume that you have been hired to filter
through reams of information on behalf of a very busy and sleep-deprived person. Define the
problem. Identify the causes and consequences, competing ideologies, and winners and losers.
Be clear, precise, and succinct. Just do half pages single space in this part.
4. 4. Pre-existing Policies: This summarizes what has been done (by others and the entity that you
represent) about the problem thus far. Depending on your topic, some of the information may
have already been presented in #3 (e.g., perhaps the problem itself stems from some other
country or organization’s intervention). The objective of this section is to inform the reader of
policy options that have already been pursued, if any. Note that the absence of action may be
considered a policy decision.
5. 5. Policy Options: This section delineates the possible courses of action or inaction for which
your side is advocating. Please provide the audience with a potential course of action reflecting
your assigned position in the debate.
6. 6. Advantages and Disadvantages of Your Policy Option: Write this section from the
perspective of the position that you represent in the debate. I’m here with advantages with
topic . please give me one reason ( support the topic ) single space
7. 7. Your Recommendation: After prioritizing the relative pros and cons of the above option,
formally recommend this option. Yes, this may require going out on a limb on an extremely
complex issue that challenges your ethical instincts.
8. 8. Sources Consulted or Recommended: This is essentially an annotated bibliography in the
event that the decision maker has the interest and time to read up on a specific issue. I expect a
minimum of 3 sources. Please provide a one to three sentence description and evaluation of
each source listed in this section. Aside from standard books and articles, on-line sources and
personal interviews may be cited. Please see me if you have any questions about the
acceptability of your research materials. For more information on annotated bibliographies see:
SOW 5241: Advanced Social Welfare Policies and Programs (3 Credits)
Spring, 2021, Thursdays 7:00-9:30pm
Dr. Terrell Brown
Policy Briefs
What this handout is about
This handout will offer tips for writing effective policy briefs. Be sure to check with your
instructor about his/her specific expectations for your assignment.
What are policy briefs?
Imagine that you’re an elected official serving on a committee that sets the standards cars must
meet to pass a state inspection. You know that this is a complex issue, and you’d like to learn
more about existing policies, the effects of emissions on the environment and on public health,
the economic consequences of different possible approaches, and more–you want to make an
informed decision. But you don’t have time to research all of these issues! You need a policy
A policy brief presents a concise summary of information that can help readers understand, and
likely make decisions about, government policies. Policy briefs may give objective summaries of
relevant research, suggest possible policy options, or go even further and argue for particular
courses of action.
How do policy briefs differ from other kinds of writing assignments?
You may encounter policy brief assignments in many different academic disciplines, from public
health and environmental science to education and social work. If you’re reading this handout
because you’re having your first encounter with such an assignment, don’t worry–many of your
existing skills and strategies, like using evidence, being concise, and organizing your information
effectively, will help you succeed at this form of writing. However, policy briefs are distinctive
in several ways.
In some of your college writing, you’ve addressed your peers, your professors, or other members
of your academic field. Policy briefs are usually created for a more general reader or policy
maker who has a stake in the issue that you’re discussing.
Tone and terminology
Many academic disciplines discourage using unnecessary jargon, but clear language is
especially important in policy briefs. If you find yourself using jargon, try to replace it with more
direct language that a non-specialist reader would be more likely to understand.
When specialized terminology is necessary, explain it quickly and clearly to ensure that your
reader doesn’t get confused.
Policy briefs are distinctive in their focus on communicating the practical implications of
research to a specific audience. Suppose that you and your roommate both write research-based
papers about global warming. Your roommate is writing a research paper for an environmental
science course, and you are writing a policy brief for a course on public policy. You might
both use the exact same sources in writing your papers. So, how might those papers differ?
Your roommate’s research paper is likely to present the findings of previous studies and
synthesize them in order to present an argument about what we know. It might also discuss the
methods and processes used in the research.
Your policy brief might synthesize the same scientific findings, but it will deploy them for a very
specific purpose: to help readers decide what they should do. It will relate the findings to current
policy debates, with an emphasis on applying the research outcomes rather than assessing the
research procedures. A research paper might also suggest practical actions, but a policy brief is
likely to emphasize them more strongly and develop them more fully.
To support these changes in audience, tone, and purpose, policy briefs have a distinctive format.
You should consult your assignment prompt and/or your professor for instructions about the
specific requirements of your assignment, but most policy briefs have several features in
common. They tend to use lots of headings and have relatively short sections. This structure
differs from many short papers in the humanities that may have a title but no further headings,
and from reports in the sciences that may follow the “IMRAD” structure of introduction,
methods, results, and discussion. Your brief might include graphs, charts, or other visual
aids that make it easier to digest the most important information within sections. Policy briefs
often include some of these sections:
• Title: A good title quickly communicates the contents of the brief in a memorable way.
• Executive Summary: This section is often one to two paragraphs long; it includes an
overview of the problem and the proposed policy action.
• Context or Scope of Problem: This section communicates the importance of the

problem and aims to convince the reader of the necessity of policy action.
Policy Alternatives: This section discusses the current policy approach and
explains proposed options. It should be fair and accurate while convincing the reader
why the policy action proposed in the brief is the most desirable.
Policy Recommendations: This section contains the most detailed explanation of the
concrete steps to be taken to address the policy issue.
Appendices: If some readers might need further support in order to accept your argument
but doing so in the brief itself might derail the conversation for other readers, you might
include the extra information in an appendix.
Consulted or Recommended Sources: These should be reliable sources that you have
used throughout your brief to guide your policy discussion and recommendations.
Depending on your specific topic and assignment, you might combine sections or break them
down into several more specific ones.
How do I identify a problem for my policy brief?
An effective policy brief must propose a solution to a well-defined problem that can be
addressed at the level of policy. This may sound easy, but it can take a lot of work to think of a
problem in a way that is open to policy action.
For example, “bad spending habits in young adults” might be a problem that you feel strongly
about, but you can’t simply implement a policy to “make better financial decisions.” In order to
make it the subject of a policy brief, you’ll need to look for research on the topic and narrow it
down. Is the problem a lack of financial education, predatory lending practices, dishonest
advertising, or something else? Narrowing to one of these (and perhaps further) would allow you
to write a brief that can propose concrete policy action.
For another example, let’s say that you wanted to address children’s health. This is a big issue,
and too broad to serve as the focus of a policy brief, but it could serve as a starting point for
research. As you begin to research studies on children’s health, you might decide to zoom in on
the more specific issue of childhood obesity. You’ll need to consult the research further to decide
what factors contribute to it in order to propose policy changes. Is it lack of exercise, nutritional
deficiencies, a combination of these, or something else? Choosing one or another of these issues,
your brief would zoom in even further to specific proposals that might include exercise
initiatives, nutritional guidelines, or school lunch programs.
The key is that you define the problem and its contributing factors as specifically as possible so
that some sort of concrete policy action (at the local, state, or national level) is feasible.
Framing the issue
Once you’ve identified the problem for yourself, you need to decide how you will present it to
your reader. Your own process of identifying the problem likely had some stops, starts, and
dead-ends, but your goal in framing the issue for your reader is to provide the most direct path to
understanding the problem and the proposed policy change. It can be helpful to think of some of
the most pressing questions your audience will have and attempt to preemptively answer those
questions. Here are some questions you might want to consider:
What is the problem?
Understanding what the problem is, in the clearest terms possible, will give your reader a
reference point. Later, when you’re discussing complex information, your reader can refer back
to the initial problem. This will help to ‘anchor’ them throughout the course of your argument.
Every piece of information in the brief should be clearly and easily connected to the problem.
What is the scope of the problem?
Knowing the extent of the problem helps to frame the policy issue for your reader. Is the problem
statewide, national, or international? How many people does this issue affect? Daily? Annually?
This is a great place for any statistical information you may have gathered through your research.
Who are the stakeholders?
Who does this issue affect? Adult women? College-educated men? Children from bilingual
homes? The primary group being affected is important, and knowing who this group is allows
the reader to assign a face to the policy issue.
Policy issues can include a complex network of stakeholders. Double check whether you have
inadvertently excluded any of them from your analysis. For example, a policy about children’s
nutrition obviously involves the children, but it might also include food producers, distributors,
parents, and nutritionists (and other experts). Some stakeholders might be reluctant to accept
your policy change or even acknowledge the existence of the problem, which is why your brief
must be convincing in its use of evidence and clear in its communication.
Effective policy-writing
This handout has emphasized that good policy briefs are clear, concise, and focused on applying
credible research to policy problems. Let’s take a look at two versions of the introduction to a
policy brief to see how someone might write and revise to achieve these qualities:
A “not-so-good” policy brief
Adolescents’ Dermatologic Health in Outlandia: A Call to Action
The Report on Adolescents’ Dermatologic Health in Outlandia (2010), issued by Secretary of
Health Dr. Polly Galver, served as a platform to increase public awareness on the importance of
dermatologic health for adolescents. Among the major themes of the report are that dermatologic
health is essential to general health and well-being and that profound and consequential
dermatologic health disparities exist in the state of Outlandia. Dr. Galver stated that what
amounts to a silent epidemic of acne is affecting some population groups–restricting activities as
schools, work, and home–and often significantly diminishing the quality of life. Dr. Galver
issued the Report on Adolescents’ Dermatologic Health as a wake-up call to policymakers and
health professionals on issues regarding the state’s dermatologic health. (“Not so good policy
brief,” Reproduced with permission of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health,
Baltimore, MD.)
This paragraph introduces a relevant and credible source, but it fails to use that source to explain
a problem and propose policy action. The reader is likely to be confused because the word
“acne” does not appear until the middle of the paragraph, and the brief never states what action
should be taken to address it. In addition to this lack of focus, the paragraph also includes
unnecessary phrases like “among the major themes” that could be removed to make it more
A better policy brief
Seeing Spots: Addressing the Silent Epidemic of Acne in Outlandia’s Youth
Acne is the most common chronic disease among adolescents in Outlandia (Outlandia
Department of Health, 2010). Long considered a benign rite of passage, acne actually has farreaching effects on the health and well being of adolescents, significantly affecting success in
school, social relationships, and general quality of life. Yet large portions of the state’s
population are unable to access treatment for acne. The Secretary of Health’s Report on
Adolescents’ Dermatologic Health in Outlandia (2010) is a call to action for policymakers and
health professionals to improve the health and wellbeing of Outlandia’s youth by increasing
access to dermatologic care (“A Better Policy Brief”, Reproduced with permission of the Johns
Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD.)
This paragraph is far more focused and concise than the first version. The opening sentence is
straightforward; instead of focusing on the source, it makes a clear and memorable point that is
supported by the source. Additionally, though the first version was titled “a call to action,” it did
not actually say what that action might be. In this version, it is clear that the call is for increased
access to dermatologic care.
Keep in mind that clarity, conciseness, and consistent focus are rarely easy to achieve in a first
draft. Careful editing and revision are key parts of writing policy briefs.
Works consulted
We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of
resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find
additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own
reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting
citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial. We revise these tips periodically and
welcome feedback.
Smith, Catherine F. Writing Public Policy, 4th edition. New York: Oxford University Press,
The Women’s and Children’s Health Policy Center, “Writing Policy Briefs: A Guide to
Translating Science and Engaging Stakeholders,”
Young, Eoin, and Lisa Quinn, “The Policy
Brief,” http://blog.lrei.org/tmurphy/files/2009/11/PolicyBrief-described.pdf
Background information
Student’s Name
Institution Affiliation
Background information
Student loan debt in America is a nightmare. Millions of American workers and students
are struggling to pay their debts. It lasts a lifetime for many. Currently, about 45 million Americans
have outstanding student loan debt. Most of it is federal debt, a staggering total of about 1.8 trillion
dollars (Cornelius & Frank, 2015). When did u get this from? It has made millions of Americans
have financial difficulties (Zhan, 2020). The US government should cancel all the student debt as
it has become a bottleneck to many Americans financially. It also has negative effects on the
nation’s economy as individuals with debt are not confident spenders, which is key for a robust
economy (Cornelius & Frank, 2015).
Consumer confidence is essential for a robust economy. When the populace has high
consumer confidence, the aggregate demand will increase. More money will be chasing few goods
and services. The prices will rise. Investors will be attracted to invest because the high prices are
associated with high profits. When new firms invest and existing ones expand, the production of
commodities & the GDP will increase. This is confusion
Further, more workers will be needed, meaning new employment opportunities will be
created. In summary, cancelling all student loan debts will enhance the financial stability of the
middle class. As a result, consumers spending will increase, leading to high GDP, more
employment opportunities, and economic growth.
One advantage of cancelling all student loans debt will be increased economic growth
(Cornelius & Frank, 2015). Because many are part of middle-class Americans, the debt relief will
increase the consumers’ confidence, translating to economic growth.
Cornelius, L., & Frank, S. (2015). Perspectives on Student Loan Debt Levels: Student Loan Debt
Levels and Their Implications for Borrowers, Society, and the Economy. Educational
Considerations, 42(2). https://doi.org/10.4148/0146-9282.1052
Zhan, M. (2020). Student Loan Debt and Financial Hardship among Young Adults. Social
Development Issues, 42(2). https://doi.org/10.3998/sdi.17872073.0042.203
Assignment 1 (): Write a minimum 8 to10 page paper describing the intervention program you
will use to develop a system of practice evaluation. Describe the population (clients, participants)
the program serves, program resources and program activities. Program activities should be
linked with clearly identified program goals and objectives. Objectives should be written as
S.M.A.R.T. objectives. Also, describe any on-going evaluation process that is now in use in the
agency, if any. Include a section describing ethical issues you will need to consider in evaluating
practice with the population you serve and for the setting in which you practice.
*Provide a brief but descriptive overview of the program in detail and explain why we want to
develop such program(s)
There can be many societal and personal benefits to graduating high school. It was
projected that in 2018, 63% of jobs will require postsecondary education and at least 10% of
available jobs will be provided to high school dropouts (Middle School’s Role in Dropout
Prevention, n.d.). It is vital that New Direction provides programs that aid in the increased
possibility for adolescents to be successful in their future lives.
Describe the Population (who does the program serve?)
Warning signs of dropping out can be seen as early as primary school, leading New
Direction to focus on the population of youth ages 11-18.
Program Resources and Activities
*program activities starts to be defined in assignment 2 (Oct 29th) page 12
Program components to be looked over and revised can be found in assignment 4 page 12
Goals and Objectives (S.M.A.R.T. Objectives)
*When meeting with Dr. Perry noted that our outcome objectives were really our
intermediate objectives. With that being discussed it was found that we need to place focus
on two main components for our program. They are listed below as:
*focusing on life skills can lead to an increase in stated objectives
● Two intermediate objectives: dropout rates and graduation rates
● One long term objective: graduation rates
*We will have two main goals that deal with life skills and mentoring programs; the focus needs
to be on increasing dropout rate/grad rates (the goals we plan to highlight/edit can be found in
assignment 4 page 11)
* We will also need to discuss our SMART objectives- this should include defining life skills
and how we plan to measure them (back up with lit. support)
-Identifying and understanding the problem
Evaluation Process
Ethical Issues (for the population being served and for the setting in which the practice is taking
Program Design and Development Proposal: New Direction
Zayed Almalki, LeNedra Isaac, Khuloud Khalifa,
Dominique Payne, Joya Riley, and Shannon Sapp
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
SOW 5386
Dr. Perry
December 3rd, 2021
Program Design and Development Proposal: New Direction
For many years, schools were developed and designed to provide adequate learning spaces and
environments for students and teachers. Students showed an eagerness and willingness to come to
school ready to learn, and teachers were well appreciated by students. With all that is going on in the
world today with the COVID-19 pandemic, students are not as willing to attend school leading to an
increase of students dropping out. Due to classes being taken online, schools did see a 3.1 percent
increase in the graduation rates (Florida’s high school graduation rate increased despite pandemic
impacting classes, 2021). The slight increase dealt with the fact that students had the opportunity to
work at their own pace and in the comfort of their own homes. In 2019-2020, standardized tests were not
required for students to graduate a part of that class. That being stated, it affects the increase in the
graduation rate. With everything slowly going back to normal and the nation gaining some control over
the pandemic, ways to go back to standard procedures must be established. With the partnership from
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University (FAMU) social work students, they will join DISC
Village in creating a new program called New Direction that works alongside available youth services. It
will target different interventions for developing life skills and provide students with strategies to
navigate school. All while preparing the students for adulthood. We intend to align our values with
DISC Village’s values by accomplishing this new program. The organization is committed to developing
a broad continuum of services in response to the multiple and diverse needs of the community while
ensuring public safety.
Describing the Problem
There are numerous researches done to explain the problems students face that led them to drop
out of school and not graduate. One of the most significant issues students face is the zero-tolerance
policy from the Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994, which was part of Improving America’s Schools Act of
1994 (IASA). This policy requires school staff to hand down specific, consistent, and harsh punishment
to students who break particular rules. The guidelines also made it extremely difficult for minority
● Nearly 345,000 suspensions each year in Florida, including more than 100 at the preschool level
(ACLU, 2018).
● Florida’s black students are 2.5 times as likely to be removed from classrooms as their white
peers (ACLU, 2018)
● Florida schools refer students to law enforcement 30% more often than the national average
(ACLU, 2018).
● Florida schools are more than twice as likely to refer black students to law enforcement and 3.25
times as likely to refer students with Individualized Education Plans (ACLU, 2018).
Low-self Esteem
Having confidence or high self-esteem shows one taking pride in themselves. Low self-esteem
can create anxiety, stress, loneliness, and increased depression. Cause problems with friendships and
romantic relationships. Seriously impair academic and job performance. Many individuals overlook the
impact school has on students’ self-esteem. According to Hoge, Smit, and Hanson (1990), it is a
combination of school factors, family, and innate intelligence that appears to be an essential ingredient
to increasing students’ self-esteem during the academic years.
Additionally, Amundson (1991) reported, in an analysis of data from the National Center for Selfesteem, that as students get older, their self-esteem diminishes(Scott, Murray, Mertens, & Dustin, 1996).
Many believe one of the most significant impacts of low self-esteem is bullying. Direct bullying entails
physical or verbal assaults such as hitting, kicking, punching, spitting, threatening, humiliating and
scorning. Indirect bullying comprises such actions as intimidating someone through gestures or
exclusion, spreading rumors, and insulting through text messaging or e-mailing. In terms of frequency,
researchers have identified name-calling, rumors, exclusion, physical aggression, racial slurs, and
material damage or theft as the most common forms of bullying, in that order (Schoen & Schoen, 2010).
Over the recent years bullying in school have risen to heights that have demanded national attention.
One study done by the National Middle School Association in 2001 estimates that 160,000 school
children stay home every day to avoid the attacks and intimidations of their peers. Researchers,
associations, and professionals have posited various definitions of bullying.
Mental Health in School
Every school has students struggling with mental health and their potential in school and life
problems. Many face temporary challenges like conflicts with peers, divorce, deployment, or a death in
the family. Some deal with chronic stressors that can cause psychological harm, including poverty,
community violence, homelessness, or abuse. And still, others are coping with emerging or chronic
mental illnesses such as depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and emotional-behavioral disorders.
Students struggling emotionally or psychologically cannot thrive or learn to their potential. Being born
into poverty can put students at a disadvantage due to gang activities, few resources, and the high crime
and violence rate. Numerous studies have shown that youth exposed to these factors have a higher
chance of depression, anxiety, aggression, and PTSD. In 1999, The U.S. Department of Health &
Human Services at least one in five young children “have mental disorders with at least mild functional
impairment. Below are some facts regarding students and mental health.
● About 10 million K-12 students nationwide need professional help for mental health reasons
(Rossen & Cowan, 2015).

In a high school of 750 students, about 150 students will experience a mental illness that
interferes with their learning behavior (Rossen & Cowan, 2015).

Over 100 of those students will not get the help they need (Rossen & Cowan, 2015).
● Common mental health problems with students include anxiety disorder, attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder, emotional, behavioral disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder,
depression, and other mood disorders (Rossen & Cowan, 2015)
Target Population
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Florida is the third-largest state in the United States of
America, with 27,477,737 students. There are roughly 2,227 high schools in Florida, 1,485 public
schools, and 742 private schools. That means right now, Florida is serving over 15,000 students a year.
The target population for this program will be Leon county (Griffin middle school & Godby high
school), Gadsden county (West Gadsden Middle School, & Gadsden County High School), and
Wakulla county (Wakulla Middle School & Wakulla High School). All of the schools selected are in
areas with limited resources and mentors. Below is information regarding each school provided by the
U.S. News & World Report.
● Griffin Middle School: The school’s minority student enrollment is 94%. The student-teacher
ratio is 17:1. The student population comprises 49% female students and 51% male students. The
school enrolls 74% economically disadvantaged students. There are 38 equivalent full-time
teachers and one full-time school counselor (Florida. U.S. News & World Report., 2021).
● Godby High School: The total minority enrollment is 86%, and 55% of students are
economically disadvantaged. The school is 1 of 14 high schools in Leon (Florida. U.S. News &
World Report., 2021).
● West Gadsden Middle School: The minority student enrollment is 93%. The student-teacher
ratio is 14:1, which is better than the districts. The student population is made up of 50% female
students and 50% male students. The school enrolls 87% economically disadvantaged students.
There are 25 equivalent full-time teachers and two full-time school counselors (Florida. U.S.
News & World Report., 2021).
● Gadsden County High School: The total minority enrollment is 97%, and 79% of students are
economically disadvantaged. Gadsden County High School is 1 of 6 high schools in the Gadsden
District (Florida. U.S. News & World Report., 2021).
● Wakulla Middle School: The school’s minority student enrollment is 18%. The student-teacher
ratio is 17:1, the same as that of the district. The student population is made up of 44% female
students and 56% male students. The school enrolls 3% economically disadvantaged students.
There are 31 equivalent full-time teachers and one full-time school counselor (Florida. U.S.
News & World Report., 2021).
● Wakulla High School: The total minority enrollment is 20%, and 38% of students are
economically disadvantaged. Wakulla High School is 1 of 3 high schools in Wakulla (Florida.
U.S. News & World Report., 2021).
Rationale for Action
Mentoring dates back to reform-oriented initiatives in the juvenile court system more than a
century ago. These efforts gave rise to Big Brothers Big Sisters of America (BBBSA), the largest and
most well-known program of its kind. The past decade has witnessed a remarkable proliferation of
similarly focused programs that pair caring, adult volunteers with youth from at-risk backgrounds. An
estimated three million youth are informal one-on-one mentoring relationships in the United States, and
funding and growth imperatives fuel program expansion (Rhodes & DuBois, 2008). The high dropout
rate of middle and high school students needs to be reduced. To combat this issue, mentoring programs
are required for the school system. Mentoring has long been accepted as a positive factor in protecting
their mentees in higher education. Mentors are usually adult role models who are a mixture of parent and
peer to their mentees. They serve as teachers, advisors, and sponsors who encourage and praise their
mentees. Many individuals believe the difference between mentors and non-mentors is not in who they
are but in what mentors do in the mentoring relationship.
● Mentors increase the competencies and performance of mentees by actively demonstrating trust
and confidence in the mentees (Slicker & Palmer, 1993).
● Mentor praises and encouragement (Slicker & Palmer, 1993).
● Mentors explain to the mentees the most desirable behaviors within the system (Slicker &
Palmer, 1993).
● Mentors protect mentees from unjust verbal attacks when necessary (Slicker & Palmer, 1993).
Numerous studies have shown that mentors’ relationship with youth can significantly impact their lives.
In a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of young adults, DuBois and Silverthorn
(2005) found that those who reported having had a mentoring relationship during adolescence exhibited
significantly better outcomes within the domains of education and work (high-school completion,
college attendance, employment), mental health (self-esteem, life satisfaction), problem behavior (gang
membership, fighting, risk-taking), and health (exercise, birth control use) (Rhodes & DuBois, 2008).
There is statistical data to support the benefits of mentoring programs.
● Jolliffe and Farington, in 2007, explored the effects of youth mentoring on recidivism among
juvenile offenders. Based on 18 evaluations, their analyses indicated that youth experiencing
mentoring fared significantly better than those who did not (Rhodes & DuBois, 2008).
● Big Brothers Big Sisters of America did an extensive, random-assignment evaluation of their
new school-based program. The result was at the end of the school year; there were significant
improvements in participants’ academic performance, perceived scholastic efficacy, school
misconduct, and attendance relative to non mentored youth (Rhodes & DuBois, 2008).
The Framework for the Intervention: The Program Hypothesis
The general hypothesis for the New Directions program is: “The program will demonstrate at least 85%
understanding of life skills and gain resources and materials that will aid in the expansion of the aspect
of prepping for education after high school. The life skills that the program participants’ middle and high
school students between the ages of 11-18 years old, will be able to successfully identify with include:
self-awareness skills, decision-making skills, effective communication, ability to engage in interpersonal
relationships, critical thinking skills, and creative thinking.”The rationale for expecting the program to
help attain positive outcomes is based on the perspective that when students are mentored, inspired.
Motivated, they are highly likely to achieve positive behavioral benefits, which include mentees
participating in peer-mentoring programs were found to have an increase in their well-being and
integration into the academic settings; enhanced self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and academic
satisfaction; made better career choices and perseverance; had more networking and better stress
management; and higher professional competence and satisfaction (Gafni Lachter & Ruland, 2018). This
is because when students are mentored, they achieve the ability to sharpen their overall understanding of
how they can make decisions based on high levels of assertiveness (Adams, 2019). When people are
mentored, they can understand how to interact positively with those around them by sharing their
diverse views.
Mentoring students is also linked with attaining high and positive forms of social-emotional
development. This is possible because they are provided with information on how they should interact
with others by paying attention to their actions’ negative and positive outcomes (Sato et al., 2018). In
addition, mentoring makes it possible for people to succeed because they are encouraged to avoid certain
forms of influence, primarily based on peer pressure. When people are mentored, they can enhance their
levels of self-esteem, linking it to increasing their self-awareness and what they feel about their
confidence levels (Garcia-Melgar & Meyers, 2020). When students are mentored, they can also be
equipped with diverse forms of succeeding in the classroom and other areas, especially by ensuring that
they understand the best approaches to positively interacting with those around them, regardless of their
diversity in terms of thoughts. They can also determine ways to sharpen their understanding in a class by
going through the allocated materials and establishing clear and straightforward study plans (Hernandez
et al., 2020).
New Direction Mission and Goal Statement
1. Mission Statement
The alarming dropout cases inform the New Direction program of students due to several factors,
including family problems such as high costs of education, particularly private schools, and other personal
needs such as clothing, food, and housing costs. Statistics show that high education costs are among the
highest causes of school drop in the United States of America. Other factors include personal issues such
as academic difficulties, substance abuse, and other secondary factors such as abusive parents. Students
struggle academically, particularly high school students who do not think they have what it takes to make
the GPA necessary to graduate (Rumberger and Lim, 2008). A study has shown that bullying and teasing
in high school are linked to most failure to graduate in the U.S. The study found that a whopping 29
percent of school dropout cases resulted from teasing and bullying. Bullying leads to low self-esteem
amongst the victims, affecting their academic performance. Addressing the leading causes, the dropout
rates are projected to decline long-term. This may include setting life skills lessons for the students to talk
about problems they are going through (Virginia, 2012).
Reduced dropouts translate to an increase in graduation rates, translating to overall students’ success
in their lives. The program will seek to address personal and external issues. The issues will be handled
through mentorship by the counseling department, which will consist of teachers, former students who
have gone on to complete their studies, and other significant figures in societies that are role models to
the students. The mentors will get to interact with the students at an informal level, making them relaxed
and open up with the challenges they are going through (James, 2018). The mentorship will ensure that
the student’s cognitive development, social and emotional needs are understood. These services will ensure
that the students will have easy access to them to help them talk about their problems, continue their
studies, and advance to higher institutions.
The individual focus will be part of the interventions to the problem. For instance, life skills such as
relationship building should be encouraged. Those students finding it hard to share their problems can
communicate freely with others on what is bothering them and see how they can be helped. Focus on
individual students’ issues will ensure that they learn life skills and more about social lives apart from
academic learning. The program will allocate students to specific counselors and mentors who will focus
on their needs and find measures that will ensure they avoid the thought of dropping out of school. Mentorstudent relationships are essential in a student’s success in school. Good relationships build trust, which
means that students can quickly tell their mentors who may be their teachers when they have personal,
family, or academic problems. This will lead to early intervention, and students’ chances of dropping out
will be minimal. Long-term relationships between students and mentors while in school are meaningful.
This is because students with issues can access their mentors who understand their weaknesses and
strengths and have a face-to-face conversation to find ways to help them solve their problems. With the
decrease in dropout rates, more students will concentrate on their learning, and a high percentage are likely
to graduate to higher institutions in the country. As a result, more students are likely to be graduating, thus
increasing the rate of successful students in the future.
2. Goal Statement
Goal 1
The goal is for the mentors to help the students who are faced with either external or internal challenges
navigate them through mentorship by making available all necessary mentorship services. This will help
the student achieve a new attitude towards studies and an improved experience with learning.
Goal 2
To enable students who had decided to take mentorship sessions to be reset psychologically to times when
their attitudes towards studies and learning were positive and focus their efforts on growing new attitudes
towards school activities to ensure they are no longer distracted and instead focus on attaining good grades.
Goal 3
To assist students with personal, family, or any other problem that hinders them from continuing with
their studies, take part in the program in making a long-term mentorship relationship with their teachers
that will make them feel free to talk their problems out with their teachers. Also, improve their learning,
achieve good grades, pass their exams and graduate to reach their dreams.
Program Components
The program to be implemented is New Direction, which seeks to address self-awareness skills,
decision-making skills, effective communication, critical and creative thinking skills, and the ability to
engage in interpersonal relationships. It will also aim to improve family interactions. There is also a
need to see kids succeeding at the middle and high school levels. The learners are expected to have good
homework and coping skills at the middle school level. However, the learners are expected to develop
independence at the high school level and do things independently. Lastly, the students are supposed to
tour and engage in mentor programs or volunteer in society at the school level.
The primary input components used in New Directions as a program include the clients, staff,
material resources, equipment, and facilities.
1. Clients:
The clients targeted by this program will include middle and high school students who are at risk
of failure and dropout. The students involved with the program will have had past behavior issues, poor
decision making, no genuine interest in school or their education, lack substantial family support, and
have no future goals and plans.
2. Staff:
The staff involved in the program of New Direction includes an executive director, four mentors
such as teachers, counselors, a program manager, an accountant, and a grant manager. The team may
also involve the community partners, federal agencies, and other healthcare providers.
3. Material Resources:
Various reading material resources such as students’ guide resources on mental health and career
visions will be used. These reading materials will be required to help in ensuring that they are
appropriate and continuous for the program participants. The program will also develop a curriculum
guide to help the participants in the program.
4. Facilities:
New Direction will be utilizing the participating school buildings to conduct and run their programs.
Using the school facilities will allow New Direction staff to closely monitor and tend to the students
who have been involved with disciplinary actions
5. Equipment:
Intervention programs are shared through computers/iPads to teach creative thinking and languages,
among other courses like technical subjects. The computers will be kept in the rehabilitation center so
that all the clients can access and learn.
Recording of Goals, Objectives, and Activities
Inspiration: Inspiration will be provided through talks to the students. There will be general
deliberations and also a provision of specific examples.
Mentoring: There will be interactions between the students and the stakeholders to help them sharpen
their overall understanding and sharing of different views about their current experiences and future
Motivation: The students will be motivated to view life in specific contexts, which will help in making it
possible for them to cooperate in the program and focus ahead.
Intermediate Outputs:
The counselors and the mental health professionals from the program will manage to reduce school
dropout rates by teaching the learners how to be confident and develop trust with their peers as we, as
family members. In addition, the program’s staff will educate the students on measures to take after
withdrawing from drug abuse. Finally, the program will target to train the parents to become more
acquainted with the services and methods that can teach children how to live a disciplined life without
affecting their lives. This will ensure fewer children dropping out of school due to drug and alcohol
abuse within the county.
Final Outputs:
After the training and establishment of rehabilitation or child welfare areas, it is expected that
children and parents will be more knowledgeable on how to handle their behavioral challenges and
family struggles that impact the quality of life they are living. Students will also learn how to take care
of their mental health and the repercussions they risk facing if they do not follow the orders.
Intermediate Outcome Objectives
1.1 By January 12th, 2022, the program participants will be able to demonstrate the attainment and
ability to apply critical thinking skills by evaluating the future outcomes of one’s present decisions and
the actions of others. This objective is instrumental in ensuring that the participants will be able to
determine relevant and alternative solutions and analyze the impact of their values and the values of the
people around them.
1.2 By January 30th, 2022, the program participants will be able to engage in interpersonal
relationships with other people by appropriately demonstrating their competency in the use of
interpersonal and communication skills. These skills will majorly include verbal and non-verbal
communication, active listening, and the ability to express one’s feelings. Part of the interpersonal
and communication skills that the participants will demonstrate include active and attentive listening
in communicating with those around them.
1.3 By February 15th, 2022, the participating young people will be able to demonstrate the
application of creative thinking as part of life skills when it comes to an understanding a problem,
redefining issues presented to them, transforming thoughts, and reinterpreting information. Creative
thinking skills usually entail originality, elaboration, and fluency. When presented with an idea, the
participants will provide additional and applicable concepts that can be viewed in terms of improved
1.4 By March 12th, 2022, participants will demonstrate effectiveness in problem-solving as a part of
life skills and show how they can pay attention to using their thought processes via knowledge,
understanding, and skills to manage a presented situation. The participants will demonstrate
competency in this skill by identifying a specific problem (hypothetical or actual) and suggesting
appropriate courses of action, in addition to the corresponding justification for their actions.
1.5 By April 15th, 2022, the participants will demonstrate the application and understanding of selfawareness as a crucial life skill. Self-awareness is a significant skill that is usually
directed towards the self. The participants will be asked to reflect on a particular incident, given that
self-awareness is cultivated through the use of reflection as well as introspection.
2.1 By January 25th, 2022, the participants will be able to correctly identify a scenario in which they
can cope by lowering expectations. Lowering one’s expectations is essential as a coping skill. It helps
prevent people from being stressed or depressed because something has not happened according to their
2.2 By March 27th, 2022, the young people participating in the program will show effectiveness in
coping skills by identifying at least two situations in which they would ask other people for assistance.
Seeking assistance is regarded as a coping skill because it enables people to reduce the overall potential
to be overwhelmed by things to be worried a lot.
2.3 By April 27th, 2022, the young people participating in the program will demonstrate their coping
skills by acknowledging the importance of taking responsibility for a situation. Here, the participants
will be expected to be engaged in an exercise that identifies hypothetical situations that are challenging
and identifies how a leader can be tasked with being responsible and helping the organization and its
members to deal with a particular issue of concern.
2.4 By May 30th, 2022, the participants will be able to mention at least two ways to show coping
skills by identifying two ways to distance themselves from the sources of stress, either at home or the
workplace. The rationale for applying this skill is that in most situations, the issues that people around
them may not directly connect to them, but how they respond to the problems affects those around them.
2.5 By June 21st, 2022, the participants will demonstrate the ability to apply the coping skills of
challenging previously held beliefs that may no longer be adaptive in different settings. The rationale for
this point of view is that, usually, coping skills are connected to the ability of people to deal with
previously held beliefs. Hence, the aspect of the teenager to show the ability to positively deal with
issues that may have occurred in the past and, if left to thrive, may trigger other adverse outcomes.
2.6 By July 30th, 2022, the participants will show their ability to apply coping skills by describing
the importance of maintaining emotional composure when faced with challenges. Emotional composure
is a crucial strategy that makes it possible for people to deal with distressing emotions.
3.1 By January 25th, 2022, senior high school students will describe how being on time and paying
attention can ensure that they succeed in taking their college tests. The students will be able to
acknowledge that being on time is essential to ensure that a person understands the significant concepts
taught in class and how they can be examined in a test.
3.2 By February 15th, 2022, the participating senior high school students will describe how asking
questions is vital to ensure that they succeed in their college. The students will acknowledge that the
instructor is there to assist and that there is no need to be shy about asking questions in class. The
chances are that the peers will appreciate how a question has been asked and how a specific question and
concept should be handled.
3.3 By March 20th, 2022, the participating young people will connect how participating in class
contributes to the potential for success. They will relate how reading assigned materials ensures that a
person engages in class and how it can help enhance better understanding than when a person does not
go through the assigned reading materials.
3.3 By April 14th, 2022, the participating young people will explain the connection between
succeeding in a unit and the importance of reading the syllabus. The syllabus is one of the essential
materials students obtain from their instructors. It includes details on how much the instructor will focus
on ensuring that the learners understand certain concepts in the class.
3.4 By May 15th, 2022, the students will be able to identify how establishing a study routine and
sticking with it can help them improve their performance and prepare them to succeed in their exams.
The central concept that the students will illustrate is that every course has a specific number of credit
hours attached that a person is expected to fulfill. This way, the participants will identify how a study
plan will be created and encourage the potential to succeed in a particular course.
3.5 By June 20th, 2022, the participating students will be able to identify and describe a note-taking
strategy that will enable them to prepare adequately for assessments. Different note-taking strategies can
enhance the possibility of succeeding in college and other educational settings. The students will be able
to select and describe a note-taking approach and rationale why the approach has a high potential to
achieve positive outcomes in what they do in school.
3.6 By July 8th, 2022, the students in the program will identify at least two major considerations they
will pay attention to in making their study aids. When it comes to learning, the use of practice tests is
important as it helps students understand questions in a better way and contemplate what can be
examined and how they should go about it. The students will show the ability to create their study aids
and use them to prepare for their exams.
3.7 By June 21st, 2022, the participating students will highlight ways in which they plan to cut out
the distractions that may negatively affect them as they prepare for their exams. Distractions make it
hard for a person to pay attention to what one is doing, making it challenging to commit facts and
concepts to memory. By identifying how different distractions can be blocked, the students will be on
the right path to showing their ability to deal with diverse issues while studying.
4.1 By January 8th, 2022, the participants in the program will describe how paying attention to how a
person feels about something can help deal with peer pressure. If something does not feel right about a
particular situation, then there is a high chance that it is not right. This strategy will help the students
understand that even if their peers engage in a certain activity, it may not be right for them to engage in
the same activity.
4.2 By February 6th, 2022, the participants will describe how planning ahead is a crucial intervention
that reduces the potential for a person to be influenced by peers when making a decision. It is hard for a
person to be swayed by the decisions or opinions of other people when one has already decided what
one wants to do with personal time. In addition, planning what a person can say or do in a given
situation reduces the likelihood of unnecessary peer pressure influence.
4.3 By March 12th, 2022, the participants will describe how they will pay attention to making friends
with similar beliefs and values to avoid unnecessary peer pressure influence. Birds of a feather flock
together, and the students in the program will depend on this phrase to describe how they will be wise
when selecting their friends in the future to ensure that they do not end up indulging in negative
activities because of peer influence.
4.4 By April 14th, 2022, the students will mention at least two scenarios in which they can seek the
services of the institution’s student counselor to obtain support on how to deal with pressing issues
associated with peer pressure. The services of a school counselor are important in enabling different
students to handle challenges they face on a day-to-day basis. Hence, by understanding the situations in
which they might obtain counseling, they will improve how they can reduce their potential for being
influenced by their peers inappropriately.
4.5 By May 10th, 2022, the students will describe how they can engage in activities that will provide
more self-confidence. Here, the students will acknowledge that the pressure of belonging, even when
one has to engage in activities one is not comfortable with, usually emanates from low self-esteem that a
person believes can be fixed in a group. The students will be able to mention examples such as new
sports, studying a new language, or engaging in a part-time job as some of the activities that can reduce
peer pressure influence.
4.6 By June 5th, 2022, the students will note how to deal with peer pressure by accepting occasional
loneliness. The students will describe how the best company is oneself and how it is important to learn
to step back from the crowd when it does not appeal to someone regarding the activities being done and
their expected outcomes. The students will note that accepting loneliness is normal when it comes to
avoiding peer pressure.
5.1 By June 13th, 2022, the students will describe how choosing positive and self-confident friends
can help to sharpen and improve their self-esteem. Even if a person makes multiple efforts to choose
more positive and self-affirming thoughts, one’s self-confidence will not grow if surrounded by
negativity. The students will not be how they will beware of the friends they talk to and understand that
the views of those around them can influence how they think and what they think about themselves.
Hence, to ensure that they improve their self-esteem levels, the students will describe how finding
friends that have specific goals and are willing to support their goals is vital for their self-esteem and
confidence levels.
5.2 By July 18th, 2022, the students will identify at least two activities to help someone else boost
their self-esteem and confidence. When students help each other in school, they can showcase their
competency and strength in a particular way. By asking students to describe situations in which they can
help their peers, the focus will be on ensuring that they can positively interact with others to build
5.3 By August 24th, 2022, the students will identify how they can improve their self-esteem by
paying attention to what they are thinking and striving to change it into a positive concept. The students
will showcase the understanding that if someone’s inner dialogue is consistently negative, the person
will likely have low levels of self-esteem and lack of confidence. The students will be able to provide
two scenarios to think about their thoughts and stipulate ways to change their views positively.
5.4 By September 15th, 2022, the students will identify ways and scenarios to ensure that they obtain
feedback from their instructors early in time to reduce the potential to lose their esteem and confidence.
They will identify two scenarios in which they can decide to obtain early feedback from the tutors or
instructors to boost their confidence while working on a particular task.
5.5 By October 10th, 2022, the students will be able to identify at least two instances in school in
which they can take negative criticism or comments constructively. This ensures that a person does not
give up when faced with challenges. Students need to train themselves to view comments positively,
regardless of whether they criticize them or offer praise. This way, the students will be able to identify a
way to eliminate the potential to have low esteem issues based on what other people tell them.
5.6 By October 10th, 2022, the students will accurately describe that learning is a process and that
they should not have a low self-esteem level or declined confidence because they cannot make it in the
first trial. The students will describe how they can reduce the feeling of low self-esteem by
acknowledging that being wrong in the first instance does not mean that there will be a continued
5.7 By October 26th, 2022, the students will be able to identify at least two ways in which they plan
to keep track of their goals while striving to improve their self-esteem levels. Students in different levels
of education ought to understand what their goals are. This is important in that it helps them to measure
their overall progress. Being flexible and realistic with one’s goals is important in reducing the potential
for unnecessary worry and anxiety if unrealistic goals are not achieved. This way, it would be
instrumental in describing relevant approaches that will be considered a way of ensuring that there is a
proper formulation of goals that are capable of making them perform in a better way in what they do.
5.8 By November 1st, 2022, the students will highlight two major approaches to avoid negative
thoughts, focusing on ensuring that they do not end up having low levels of self-esteem. Each person is
susceptible to pessimism or feeling that a person has become doomed due to a particular occurrence.
These adverse thoughts usually come from experiences with bullies, family members, or friends. They
can also arise from past failures or the inability of a person to achieve certain expectations. Based on
these aspects, the students will be required to identify relevant approaches to avoid the potential for
these thoughts from affecting how they think about themselves to the extent of causing a poor lack of
confidence and low self-esteem levels.
5.9 By November 3rd, 2022, the students will be able to highlight and describe two ways they can
take chances in college, focusing on ensuring that they obtain new experiences and learn diverse things.
For instance, the students can be asked to describe how being involved in extracurricular activities will
play a role in ensuring that they learn more about how to reduce the potential to have low self-esteem
issues. The students will replicate the fact that by trying and learning new things, people can learn new
things that allow them to become more comfortable exploring diverse personal strengths and
weaknesses. This way, they will show how feeling more relaxed and ready to explore diverse settings in
life is important for achieving better things in life.
Final Outcomes:
The final major outcomes are connected to the program’s understanding and focus on ensuring
that the students are successful in their studies and other parts of life. Precisely, the main outcomes
include understanding life skills, coping skills, knowledge on how to prepare for college examination,
being independent in making different types of decisions, and identifying strategies on the overall ability
to say no to peer pressure and showing high levels of self-esteem. These outcomes are connected with
ensuring that students are adequately mentored and shaped to become highly reliable people in the
future. Children will be in regular attendance to their programs, leading to them passing their classes
with a satisfactory grade and regular attendance.
Management Information System
Evaluation of Effort
1. The number of participants? Specifically, their ages and gender.
Before each student begins participation with either program, a general information form will be
completed to give New Direction access to basic information about the students, such as age, gender,
current educational level, and behavioral issues at school. New Direction will group the participants
based on age, gender, and educational levels through the form. The programs will have sixty (60)
participants, thirty (30) males and thirty (30) females between the ages of 11-18.
What is the number of materials being used and disbursed amongst clients? The methods as
When subjected to school computers, there will be an opportunity to monitor and track how many
students have logged onto a computer. Once the students have established their presence via online
login, a number will be collected to determine how much material will be used and disbursed for that
current session.
Evaluation of Cost Efficiency
Is the program able to expand outside of the school? Can the budget sustain the program being
run out of its own building?
2. How are the discretionary funds being spent?
New Direction has an educational and developmental focus with that the main aspect is to keep the programs
offered in a school setting. With the budget being allocated the way that it currently is, there is a strong chance
The program would sustain itself outside of the school setting and in its own building.
The current discretionary funds will be used to sustain the budget in the event of any unexpected expenses, or
Any unforeseen cost for repair to equipment or over expenditures at the school.
Evaluation of Outcome
1. What socio-economic group will be most affected? Why?
Students involved in the New Direction program will be sent home with information for their parents to
read and fill out to collect data on this matter. Among the information given, there will be a parent
questionnaire that covers questions about socio-economic status, access to resources, and general
information about the household.
2. Which gender benefits the most from New Direction?
Evaluations will be handed out, touching on just how well the students are about the information
given in the life skills and college prep sessions.
Evaluation of Cost-Effectiveness
1. What is the success rate with clients using the program versus other students?
2. Completion rates?
The program’s effectiveness will be determined by the number of students completing the program.
Success will be determined at a 60% completion rate; that rate will include not missing more than two full
Sessions, completion of all study guides, and being able to demonstrate the application of skills taught, which
Will be demonstrated in small group settings and improved behavior in the everyday school setting.
Misbehavior will be reported to the mentors weekly.
Budget Justification
Shannon Sapp will serve as the Executive Director; she will contribute 10% of her time in the calendar
year. Based on a 10% contribution to New Direction, the Executive Director will have a set salary of
$8,961, reflecting 10% of FTE (equals .10). The salary calculations are based on the current average
salary noted on the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, annually totaling $89,608. The executive director
will oversee day-to-day activities going in the business, prepare and develop a comprehensive budget,
report revenue and disbursement, and work and engage with groups within the community.
LeNedra Isaac will contribute 80% of her time during the calendar year effort to New Direction as a
Program Director at the cost of $46,720. This salary calculation is based on the current annual average
salary of $58,400 noted on the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. LeNedra would be responsible for
researching, planning, and setting goals for the program.
Dominique Payne will serve as a counselor and will be 100% dedicated to New Direction at the cost of
$64,890. The counselor will be responsible for providing guidance and aid to students who may be
having a hard time adjusting to the new educational environment. New Direction is focusing on youth
that are middle and high school level. The counselor’s salary rate is based on $31.20 per hour for 2075
hours during the calendar year. The salary is compared to those holding the same occupation while in
Managers and directors handling programs, grants, and the business will contribute vital assets to New
Direction. The Budget Manager must possess experience with accounting, statistical software, and
financial experience. The Grant Manager will be hired with 75% effort to this program, seeing that they
will only be needed to manage grants provided to inquire about funding for the programs. The
contribution of time to New Direction is at the cost of $71,417 annually salary, sitting at $31 per hour
and dedicating 2050 hours during the calendar year.
Other Personnel
Four mentors will be employed at a rate of $15 per hour for four hours per day, totaling $60 per day,
equaling $1200 per month, $14,400 annually. The stated annual amount will be issued across all four
mentors, totaling $3,600 each.
A total of $206 388 is requested for personnel costs.
Supplies/ Equipment
Classroom materials and supplies will be mainly provided through the schools that New Direction is
working with. Five tablets will be requested, amounting to $500 each for a total of $2,500.
In-Kind contributions are noted and include present school resources such as printers, office supplies,
paper, ink. New Direction will also be receiving donations of items such as paper, pens/pencils, and
office supplies from local community businesses partnered with DISC Village.
The position of an Accountant will be on a part-time basis and will be held by a bank. Their position and
contribution to this program will be estimated at 150 hours. Their experience in this department is also
being utilized at a small local bank, and their hours will be split for work conducted in this program. At
$21 per hour, their total compensation is budgeted at $ 3,150.
All staff and board members will be provided a 1099 at the end of the year for tax purposes. All other
salaries previously stated for board members.
Training for counselors and mentors is required; three mandatory training sessions are required for those
individuals. Program staff at the different schools participating in the sessions will be conducting the
training. Individuals’ mileage for the trips will be considered in the expenses. Jefferson County (38
minutes, 25 miles out); Gadsden County (42 minutes, 27 miles out); Liberty County, Madison County,
Taylor County (1 hour, 61 miles) and Wakulla County (41 minutes, 25 miles out). The average per-mile
rate will be set at $0.54 per mile. This amount was established based on the 2021 IRS standard mileage
rate. No lodging is needed for training sessions due to sessions conducted during the day and sessions
remaining locally. An amount of $300 is requested for in-state mileage reimbursement. Tackling the
aspects for the students, there will be a request to inquire buses for college tours, $2,000 per trip totaling
$10,000. Lodging for trips will include hotels, totaling $1,000 per trip at five trips totaling $5,000.
Travel expenses are calculated at a total of $15,065.
Training Software
The training software Botvin Life Skills will be available for individuals to interact with, costing a total
of $235 for all trainers. Training will take place at different school locations throughout the county.
Program staff at the different schools participating in the sessions will be conducting the training. The
Coursera training package will be recommended for school computers, as it supports lifelong learning,
totaling $2,500. The Coursera software will also train mentors and prepare them to work with the
students. When the training is completed, mentors will receive a certificate of completion. To acquire all
the training software expenses, the total calculated is $ 2,735.
There will be other costs and expenses totaling $6500.00 to cover the cost of field trips, transportation, tshirts, and food. There will be a total of five college tours per year. Students will have the option of
tours at the University of Florida, University of South Florida, University of Central Florida, Bethune
Cookman University, and the University of North Florida. Students will be provided a t-shirt for each
college tour. Food will be provided by local restaurants/vendors in the designated areas; we will call
ahead to arrange.
Indirect Cost
New Direction will not acquire any indirect cost because the high schools will provide supplies via inkind donations. Based on the facility rental agreement, New Direction will be renting (direct cost) a
classroom for $6.25 per hour for a total of $25 a day for four hours. An amount of $500 a month, $300
for liability insurance, totaling $9,600 a year, including all amenities.
Direct Cost
New Direction’s direct cost will be paying the salary and wages of the Executive Director $8.961,
Program Director $46,720, and Grant Manager $71,417. For supplies and equipment for the program,
we will inquire about five tablets, totaling $2,500, and computer software totaling $2,500. For traveling,
the program has Mileage reimbursement of $150, buses $10,000, and lodging $5,000 for other expenses
such as field trips, food, and merchandise $6,500.
Total Cost
The total calculated cost of this program is $350,210, but New Direction is estimating a $500,000
budget to cover all expenses and revenues, leaving room for a $20,000 discretionary budget amount.
Costs reflected in this budget are necessary to establish, run and maintain this program effectively.
Cost per unit of service
New Direction’s start budget is $350,210. The program offers one hour of group therapy to 60 students
after school. There are two groups per day: Life Skills and College Prep programs, given to 20 students
in each group for one hour. The number of units will be 20, making the cost per unit of services $25.
Cost per service completion
New Direction is looking to work with 60 students who are anticipated to complete 60 percent of the
program. With the budget being $500,000 to find the cost per completion service, we will time the total
budget by 60 percent. Therefore, the estimate at completion would be $300,000.
Cost per client outcome
New Direction is a school-based program and directly receives a referral from the school. The referral is
for students struggling in academia and has high discriminatory actions. To ensure the program is
beneficial to students, there will be weekly check-in to ensure students do not have any disciplinary
action such as in-school suspension (ISS), disciplinary referrals, out-of-school suspension, etc. Students
will complete a survey at the end of every quarter asking how they feel about the material they learn,
suggestions on improving learning, and what they like and did not like about the school quarter.
Table 1.1 below shows all costs and anticipated expenses that the program will incur during the year.
The budget and expenses will be re-evaluated quarterly, and there is a $20,000 discretionary fund set
aside for unexpected expenses and to be able to readjust the budget as needed. The supplies category
covers the cost of the two training software used in the college prep program. As for the Employee
Related Expenses, New Direction will only have ERE for the following staff positions such as the
Executive Director (ERE= 2,240), grant manager (ERE=17,854), and program director (ERE=11,680).
To calculate the ERE of each employee, the salary amount was multiplied by 25% (.25). All other
employees will be considered contractual and will receive a 1099 at the end of the year.
Table 1.1 New Directions Budget Line
Budget Line Item
Life Skills
College Prep Program
Indirect Cost
Salaries and Wages
Executive Director
Grant Manager
$ 3,150.
Program Director
Mentors 4 @ 3,600
Total salaries
and wages
ERE @25%
Taxes for salaried emps
5. Supplies
Allocated Indirect Costs
Total Direct and Indirect Costs
Botvin LifeSkills Training. (2017). Botvin LifeSkills Training. https://www.lifeskillstraining.com/
Coursera. (2017). Coursera | Online Courses &
Credentials by Top Educators. Join for Free. Coursera. https://www.coursera.org/
Florida’s high school graduation rate increased despite pandemics impacting classes. (2021, January
8th). WFTS. https://www.abcactionnews.com/news/state/floridas-high-school-graduation-rateincreased-despite-pandemic-impacting-classes
James, M. (2018). Causes of High School Dropouts. Retrieved from LoveToKnow website:
Rumberger, R. and Lim, S., 2008. Why Students Dropout of School: A Review of 25 Years of Research.
[ebook] Available at: [Accessed 25 November
Tallahassee, FL – May 2019 OES Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Area Occupational Employment
and Wage Estimates. (n.d.). Www.bls.gov.https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes_45220.htm
Virginia, E. (2012). More students drop out in bullying ‘climates’ – Futurity. Retrieved November 24th,
2021, from https://www.futurity.org/more-students-drop-out-in-bullying-climates/.
ACLU. (2018, April 12th). Florida’s School to Prison Pipeline. ACLU of Florida. Retrieved
November 9th, 2021, from https://www.aclufl.org/en/floridas-school-prison-pipeline.
Pragholapati, A. (2020, May 11th). COVID-19 IMPACT ON STUDENTS.
SCHOEN, S., & SCHOEN, A. (2010). Bullying and Harassment in the United States. The Clearing
House, 83(2), 68–72. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20697902
Scott, C. G., Murray, G. C., Mertens, C., & Dustin, E. R. (1996). Student Self-Esteem and the School
System: Perceptions and Implications. The Journal of Educational Research, 89(5), 286–293.
K-12 School Rankings in Florida. U.S. News & World Report. . (2021). Retrieved December 2nd, 2021,
from https://www.usnews.com/education/rankings?int=top_nav_Rankings.
Rossen, E., & Cowan, K. C. (2014). Improving mental health in schools. The Phi Delta Kappan, 96(4),
8–13. http://www.jstor.org/stable/24376532
Slicker, E. K., & Palmer, D. J. (1993). Mentoring At-Risk High School Students: Evaluation of a
School-Based Program. The School Counselor, 40(5), 327–334. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23900201
Rhodes, J. E., & DuBois, D. L. (2008). Mentoring Relationships and Programs for Youth. Current
Directions in Psychological Science, 17(4), 254–258. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20183295

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