University of Florida Program Design and Development Proposal

Assignment 1(): Write a minimum 8 to10 page paper describing the intervention program you will use to
develop a system of practice evaluation. Describe the population (clients, participants) the
program serves, program resources and program activities. Program activities should be linked
with clearly identified program goals and objectives. Objectives should be written as S.M.A.R.T.
objectives. Also, describe any ongoing evaluation process that is now in use in the agency, if
any. Include a section describing ethical issues you will need to consider in evaluating practice
with the population you serve and for the setting in which you practice.
Please do my part in highlight yellow color.
My classmates’s work:
Introduction
There can be many societal and personal benefits to graduating high school. It was
projected that in 2018, 63% of jobs will require postsecondary education and at least 10% of
available jobs will be provided to high school dropouts (Middle School’s Role in Dropout
Prevention, n.d.). It is vital that New Direction provides programs that aid in the increased
possibility for adolescents to be successful in their future lives. Incorporating mentoring
programs the focus on improving life skills and basic knowledge for students close to entering
adulthood would be provided through New Directions’s services. 84% of Americans state that
what they learned in school have never been utilized in the real world (SWNS, 2019).
Acknowledging that most of the things taught in school are generally not used on a day to day
basis, New Direction plans on opening up an opportunity to give access to practical life skills. By
providing such services, the program can tackle the need for decreasing dropout rates and
graduation rates on the intermediate educational levels.
Describe the Population (who does the program serve?)
Warning signs of dropping out can be seen as early as primary school, leading New
Direction to focus on the population of youth ages 11-18. There are 14,608 public and private
schools in Florida. Out of that 14,608, there are 3,807 middle schools and 2,777 high schools
(2022 Florida Schools | Public, Charter, & Private School Ratings, n.d.). Inside Florida, New
Direction will focus on three regions in Northern Florida: Leon, Wakulla, and Gadsden County.
The schools this program will be serving in Leon county are Griffin middle school and Godby
high school. For Gadsden county it will be West Gadsden Middle School, and Gadsden County
High School. For Wakulla county it will be Wakulla Middle School and Wakulla High School.
These schools were hand-chosen by New Direction based on the data given by the U.S. News
and World Report. Griffin Middle School: The school’s minority student enrollment is 94%. The
student-teacher ratio is 17:1. The student population comprises 49% female students and 51%
male students. The school enrolls 74% economically disadvantaged students. There are 38
equivalent full-time teachers and one full-time school counselor. Godby High School: The total
minority enrollment is 86%, and 55% of students are economically disadvantaged. The school is
1 of 14 high schools in Leon. West Gadsden Middle School: The minority student enrollment is
93%. The student-teacher ratio is 14:1, which is better than the district. The student population
comprises 50% female students and 50% male students. The school enrolls 87% economically
disadvantaged students. There are 25 equivalent full-time teachers and two full-time school
counselors. Gadsden County High School: The total minority enrollment is 97%, and 79% of
students are economically disadvantaged. Gadsden County High School is 1 of 6 high schools in
the Gadsden District. Wakulla Middle School: The school’s minority student enrollment is 18%.
The student-teacher ratio is 17:1, the same as that of the district. The student population
comprises 44% female students and 56% male students. The school enrolls 3% economically
disadvantaged students. There are 31 equivalent full-time teachers and one full-time school
counselor. Wakulla High School: The total minority enrollment is 20%, and 38% of students are
economically disadvantaged. Wakulla High School is 1 of 3 high schools in Wakulla (Florida.
U.S. News & World Report., 2021).
Program Resources and Activities
*program activities starts to be defined in assignment 2 (Oct 29th) page 12
Program components to be looked over and revised can be found in assignment 4 page 12
New Direction is a mentor and mentee-focused program. They are utilizing teachers to
hold the place of mentors from various schools around the county.
Programs Components:
The program to be implemented is New Direction, which seeks to address reduced dropout rates and increased graduation rates at the high and middle education levels. There is also a
need to see adolescents succeeding at the middle and high school levels by integrating
mentorship programs, emphasizing improving life skills and fundamental knowledge for students
near adulthood through New Directions services. An estimated three million youth are in formal
one-on-one mentoring relationships in the United States, and funding and growth imperatives
fuel program expansion (Rhodes & DuBois, 2008). The high dropout rate of middle and high
school students needs to be reduced. To combat this issue, mentoring programs are necessary for
the school system. Mentoring has long been accepted as a positive factor in protecting their
mentees in higher education. Mentors are usually adult role models who are a mixture of parent
and peer to their mentees. They serve as teachers, advisors, and sponsors who encourage and
praise their mentees. Many individuals believe the difference between mentors and non-mentors
is not in who they are but in what mentors do in the mentoring relationship. Mentors increase the
competencies and performance of mentees by actively demonstrating trust and confidence in the
mentees, mentor praises, and encouragement (Slicker & Palmer, 1993). Mentors explain to the
mentees those behaviors within the system that are most desirable and protect mentees from
unjust verbal attacks when necessary (Slicker & Palmer, 1993). Numerous studies have shown
that mentors’ relationship with youth can significantly impact their lives. In a longitudinal study
of a nationally representative sample of young adults, DuBois and Silverthorn (2005) found that
those who reported having had a mentoring relationship during adolescence exhibited
significantly better outcomes within the domains of education and work (high-school
completion, college attendance, employment), mental health (self-esteem, life satisfaction),
problem behavior (gang membership, fighting, risk-taking), and health (exercise, birth control
use) (Rhodes & DuBois, 2008). There are statistical data to support the benefits of mentoring
programs. Jolliffe and Farington, in 2007, explored the effects of youth mentoring on recidivism
among juvenile offenders. Their analyses, based on 18 evaluations, indicated that youth
experiencing mentoring fared significantly better than those who did not (Rhodes & DuBois,
2008). Big Brothers Big Sisters of America did a large, random-assignment evaluation of their
new school-based program. The result was at the end of the school year, there were significant
improvements in participants’ academic performance, perceived scholastic efficacy, school
misconduct, and attendance relative to non-mentored youth (Rhodes & DuBois, 2008).
Goals and Objectives (S.M.A.R.T. Objectives)
*When meeting with Dr. Perry noted that our outcome objectives were really our
intermediate objectives. With that being discussed it was found that we need to place focus
on two main components for our program. They are listed below as:
*focusing on life skills can lead to an increase in stated objectives
● Two intermediate objectives: dropout rates and graduation rates
● One long term objective: graduation rates
*We will have two main goals that deal with life skills and mentoring programs; the focus needs
to be on decresing dropout rate/grad rates: (the goals we plan to highlight/edit can be found in
assignment 4 page 11)
Final Objectives- college/post secondary plan
* We will also need to discuss our SMART objectives- this should include defining life skills
and how we plan to measure them (back up with lit. support)
-Identifying and understanding the problem
Evaluation Process
Ethical Issues (for the population being served and for the setting in which the practice is taking
place)
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Planning, Designing and Tracking the Program: New Direction Inc.
October 29, 2021
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Planning, Designing and Tracking the Program: New Direction Inc.
Introduction
In the United States of America, schools have always been a place where teachers and
students enjoy going. It was a place where students were eager to learn and where teachers were
happy to teach. Now, schools are places where students fear going due to bullying, struggling
academically, family, or personal problems. The list goes on as to why more and more students
are dropping out and not completing high school. On average, roughly 1.2 million students drop
out of high school in the United States alone every year. In Leon and Wakulla County, the
dropout rate is slowly increasing over the years. In Gadsden County, the dropout rate is over 60
percent for students. COVID-19 has negatively affected students as well. Since the pandemic,
most schools have gone viral, thousands have died due to COVID-19, and millions were affected
by the pandemic. Due to the pandemic, students’ mental health is at an all-time high. About
24.9% of students have experienced anxiety because of this COVID-19 pandemic. Living in
urban areas, living with parents, having a stable family income are protective factors for students
against the anxiety experienced during the COVID-19 outbreak. However, having a relative or
acquaintance who is infected with COVID-19 is an independent risk factor for anxiety
experienced (Pragholapati, 2020). There is a dire need for a program or intervention to help
students navigate through school. That is why Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
(FAMU) social work students came up with New Direction Inc.
The Framework for the Intervention: The Program Hypothesis
The general hypothesis for the New Directions program is: “The program will be successful in
ensuring that at its, the young people (middle and high school students). They will demonstrate
at least 85% understanding of life skills and apply them in their day-to-day activities. The life
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skills that the young people will be able to successfully identify will include self-awareness
skills, decision-making skills, effective communication, ability to engage in interpersonal
relationships, critical thinking skills, and creative thinking.” The rationale for expecting the
program to help attain positive outcomes is based on the perspective that when students are
mentored, inspired, and motivated, they are highly likely to achieve positive behavioral benefits
(Gafni Lachter & Ruland, 2018). This is because when students are mentored, they acquire the
ability to sharpen their overall understanding of how they can make decisions based on high
levels of assertiveness (Adams, 2019). When people are mentored, they can understand how they
can interact positively with those around them by sharing their diverse views.
Mentoring students is also linked with the attainment of high and positive forms of socialemotional development. This is possible because they are provided with information on how they
should interact with others by paying attention to the negative and positive outcomes that may
occur from their actions (Sato et al., 2018). In addition, mentoring makes it possible for people to
succeed because they are encouraged to avoid certain forms of influence, primarily based on peer
pressure. When people are mentored, they can enhance their self-esteem and what they feel about
their confidence levels (Garcia-Melgar & Meyers, 2020). When students are mentored, they can
also be equipped with diverse forms of succeeding in the classroom and other areas, especially
by ensuring that they understand the best approaches to positively interacting with those around
them, regardless of their diversity in terms of thoughts. They can also determine ways to sharpen
their understanding in a class by going through the allocated materials and establishing clear and
straightforward study plans (Hernandez et al., 2020). Also, with New Direction, the hypothesis is
that schools will see a decrease in dropout rates, an increase in graduation rate, and student
success.
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Framework for the Intervention
New Direction Inc is a 501c3 nonprofit organization that was created and designed by
FAMU social work students. New Direction is a school-based program where mentor-teachers
guide students through tough times, new experiences, college planning, and career vision. This
program will be here for their students from middle school through high school. This program
will be available in Leon county (Griffin middle school, Godby high school), Gadsden County
(Gadsden County High School, West Gadsden Middle School), and Wakulla county (Wakulla
High School, Wakulla middle school). All the schools selected are lower in areas with limited
resources and mentors. Below is New Direction Incs’s mission statement and vision.
● New Direction Mission Statement: Building lifetime and long-term relationships with
students, providing them with the necessary tools to thrive and contribute to their
community.
● New Direction Vision: A Northwest Florida where all students have the tools necessary
to succeed in life.
New Direction Mission and Goal Statement
1. Mission statement:
High rates have informed the New Direction program of school dropouts because of various
factors. These factors include family problems like lack of school fees and other necessary needs,
personal issues like drug and substance abuse, academic difficulties and struggles partly due to
challenges from home and partly due to student unpreparedness, bullying which hurts students’
self-esteem, etc. (Babinski, Corra, and Gifford, 2016). Through the intervention program, it is
projected that dropout rates will decrease. As a result, graduation rates will increase, translating to
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overall student success in their lives. The program will seek to address personal and family issues.
These will be handled through counseling of students by professionals and bringing social services
closer to the students to benefit from them. These services will ensure that students likely to drop
out because of personal and family pressures will get the help they need and be psychologically
prepared to continue with their studies, which will increase their chances of passing and advancing
to higher institutions.
The individual focus will be part of the interventions to the problem. Individual students in the
schools of focus have personal issues that may differ from one another. Focus on individual
students’ issues will ensure every student benefits in their areas of need. Individual assistance will
include academic and behavioral needs. The program will allocate students to specific teachers
and mentors to focus on their needs and find solutions that will ensure they drop the idea of
dropping out of school. Teacher-student relationships are essential in a student’s success in school
(Kettner, Moroney, and Martin, 2016). Good relationships build trust, which means that students
can quickly tell their teachers when they have personal, family, or academic problems. This will
lead to early intervention, and the chances of the student considering dropping out will reduce.
Long-term relationships are meaningful because teachers understand their students’ weaknesses
and strengths and can develop timely interventions to address the shortcomings. With a decrease
in dropout rates, more students will concentrate on their learning and complete their studies, and a
higher percentage will graduate from high schools to join colleges across the country. As a result,
more students will be graduating college, which will mean there will be an increase in student
success and an overall better quality of life.
2.
Goal statement:
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Goal 1:
To guide students who have faced family and personal problems in overcoming their challenges
through counseling and access to social services and use the available resources like teachers,
libraries, and family members to achieve a new attitude towards studies and an improved
experience with learning.
Goal 2:
To enable students who had decided to take counseling lessons to be reset psychologically to times
when their attitudes towards studies and learning were positive and focus their efforts on growing
new attitudes towards school activities to ensure they are no longer distracted and instead focus on
attaining good grades.
Goal 3:
To assist the students taking part in the program in making meaningful long-term relationships
with their teachers in school and building trust that will enable them to always talk to their teachers
whenever they have problems. Also, improve their learning and achieve good grades, passing and
joining colleges, graduating from them, and achieving success in their lives.
3). Outcome Objectives
1.0. By November 15th, 2022, young people will be able to cite and apply at least five different
life skills.
2.0 By November 10th, 2022, the young people participating in the program will be able to
identify at least five coping skills and describe relevant ways in how these skills can be applied
in life.
3.0 By November 13th, 2022, the participants in senior high school will describe at least five
strategies that they can apply to ensure that they pass their college tests.
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4.0 By November 5th, 2022, the students will identify at least five approaches that will be applied
to handle peer pressure and reduce the potential of being negatively affected by force from their
peers.
5.0 By November 3rd, 2022, the students will identify and describe at least four approaches they
will use to enhance their self-esteem while in educational institutions.
Intermediate Outcome Objectives
1.1 By January 12th, 2022, the program participants will be able to demonstrate the
attainment and ability to apply critical thinking skills by evaluating the future outcomes of one’s
present decisions and the actions of others. This objective is instrumental in ensuring that 1.1 the
participants can be able to determine relevant and alternative solutions and analyze the impact of
their values and the values of people around them.
1.2 1.1 By January 30th, 2022, the program participants will be able to engage in
interpersonal relationships with other people by appropriately demonstrating their competency in
the use of interpersonal and communication skills. These skills will majorly include verbal and
non-verbal communication, active listening, and the ability to express one’s feelings. Part of the
interpersonal and communication skills that the participants will demonstrate include active and
attentive listening in communicating with those around them.
1.3 By February 15th, 2022, the participating young people will be able to demonstrate
the application of creative thinking as part of life skills when it comes to an understanding a
problem, redefining issues presented to them, transforming thoughts, and reinterpreting
information. Creative thinking skills usually entail originality, elaboration, and fluency. When
presented with an idea, the participants will provide additional and applicable concepts that can
be viewed in terms of improved insight.
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1.4 By March 12th, 2022, young people will demonstrate effectiveness in problemsolving as a part of life skills and show how they can pay attention to the use of their thought
processes via knowledge, understanding, and skills to manage a presented situation. The
participants will demonstrate competency in this skill by identifying a particular problem
(hypothetical or actual) and suggesting appropriate courses of action, in addition to the
corresponding justification for their actions.
1.5 By April 15th, 2022, the participants will demonstrate the application and
understanding of self-awareness as a crucial life skill. Self-awareness is a significant skill
that is usually directed towards the self. The participants will be asked to reflect on a
particular incident, given that self-awareness is cultivated through the use of reflection as
well as introspection.
2.1 By January 25th, 2022, young people will be able to correctly identify a scenario in
which they can cope by lowering expectations. The aspect of lowering one’s expectations is vital
as a coping skill. After all, it helps prevent the potential for people to be stressed or depressed
because something has not happened according to their expectations.
2.2 By March 27th, 2022, the young people participating in the program will show
effectiveness in coping skills by identifying at least two situations in which they would ask other
people for assistance. Seeking assistance is regarded as a coping skill because it enables people
to reduce the overall potential to be overwhelmed by things to the extent of being worried a lot.
2.3 By April 27th, 2022, the young people participating in the program will demonstrate
their coping skills by acknowledging the importance of taking responsibility for a situation.
Here, the participants will be expected to be engaged in an exercise that identifies hypothetical
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situations that are challenging and identifies how a leader can be tasked with being responsible
and helping the organization and its members to deal with a particular issue of concern.
2.4 By May 30th, 2022, the participants will be able to mention at least two ways to show
coping skills by identifying two ways in which they can distance themselves from the sources of
stress, either at home or the workplace. The rationale for applying this skill is that in most
situations, the issues that people around them may not directly connect to them, but how they
respond to the problems affects those around them.
2.5 By June 21st, 2022, the participants will demonstrate the ability to apply the coping
skills of challenging previously held beliefs that may no longer be adaptive in different settings.
The rationale for this point of view is that, usually, coping skills are connected to the ability of
people to deal with previously held beliefs. Hence, the aspect of the teenager to show the ability
to positively deal with issues that may have occurred in the past and, if left to thrive, may trigger
different adverse outcomes.
2.6 By July 30th, 2022, the participants will show their ability to apply coping skills by
describing the importance of maintaining emotional composure when faced with challenges.
Emotional composure is a crucial strategy that makes it possible for people to deal with
distressing emotions.
3.1 By January 25th, 2022, senior high school students will be able to describe how being
on time and paying attention can ensure that they succeed in taking their college tests. The
students will be able to acknowledge that being on time is critical to ensure that a person
understands the significant concepts that are being taught in class and how they can be examined
in a test.
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3.2 By February 15th, 2022, the participating senior high school students will be able to
describe how asking questions is important as part of ensuring that they succeed in their college.
The students will acknowledge that the instructor is there to assist and that there is no need to be
shy about asking questions in class. The chances are that the peers will appreciate how a question
has been asked and how an inevitable question and concept should be handled.
3.3 By March 20th, 2022, the participating young people will be able to connect how
participating in class contributes to the potential for success. They will connect how reading
assigned materials is part of ensuring that a person engages in class and how it can help enhance
better understanding than when a person does not go through the posted reading materials.
3.3 By April 14th, 2022, the participating young people will explain the connection
between succeeding in a unit and the importance of reading the syllabus. The syllabus exists as
one of the most essential materials that students obtain from their instructors. It includes details
on how much the instructor will focus on ensuring that the learners understand certain concepts
in the class.
3.4 By May 15th, 2022, the students will be able to identify how establishing a study
routine and sticking with it can help them improve their performance and prepare them to
succeed in their exams. The central concept that the students will illustrate is that every course
has a specific number of credit hours attached that a person is expected to fulfill. This way, the
participants will identify how a study plan will be created and encourage the potential to succeed
in a particular course.
3.5 By June 20th, 2022, the participating students will be able to identify and describe a notetaking strategy that will enable them to prepare adequately for assessments. Different note-taking
strategies can be used to enhance the possibility of succeeding in college and other educational
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settings. The students will be able to select and describe a note-taking approach and rationale
why the approach has a high potential to achieve positive outcomes in what they do in school.
3.6 By July 8th, 2022, the students in the program will identify at least two major
considerations they will pay attention to in making their study aids. When it comes to the aspect
of learning, the use of practice tests is important as it helps students understand questions in a
better way and contemplate what can be examined and how they should go about it. The students
will show the ability to create their study aids and use them to prepare for their exams.
3.7 By June 21st, 2022, the participating students will highlight ways in which they plan
to cut out the distractions that may negatively affect them as they prepare for their exams.
Distractions make it hard for a person to pay attention to what one is doing, which makes it
challenging to commit facts and concepts to memory. By identifying how different distractions
can be blocked, the students will be on the right path to showing their ability to deal with diverse
issues while studying.
4.1 By January 8th, 2022, the participants in the program will describe how paying
attention to how a person feels about something can help deal with peer pressure. If something
does not feel right about a particular situation, then there is a high chance that it is not right. This
strategy will help the students understand that even if their peers engage in a certain activity, it
may not be right for them to engage in the same activity.
4.2 By February 6th, 2022, the participants will describe how planning ahead is a crucial
intervention that reduces the potential for a person to be influenced by peers when making a
decision. It is hard for a person to be swayed by the decisions or opinions of other people when
one has already decided what one wants to do with personal time. In addition, planning what a
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person can say or do in a given situation reduces the likelihood of unnecessary peer pressure
influence.
4.3 By March 12th, 2022, the participants will describe how they will pay attention to
making friends with similar beliefs and values to avoid unnecessary peer pressure influence.
Birds of a feather flock together, and the students in the program will depend on this phrase to
describe how they will be wise when selecting their friends in the future to ensure that they do
not end up indulging in negative activities because of peer influence.
4.4 By April 14th, 2022, the students will mention at least two scenarios in which they can
seek the services of the institution’s student counselor to obtain support on how to deal with
pressing issues associated with peer pressure. The services of a school counselor are important in
enabling different students to handle challenges they face on a day-to-day basis. Hence, by
understanding the situations in which they might obtain counseling, they will improve how they
can reduce their potential for being influenced by their peers inappropriately.
4.5 By May 10th, 2022, the students will describe how they can engage in activities that
will provide them with more self-confidence. Here, the students will acknowledge that the
pressure of belonging, even when a person has to engage in activities one is not comfortable
with, usually emanates from low self-esteem that a person believes can be fixed in a group. The
students will be able to mention examples such as new sports, studying a new language, or
engaging in a part-time job as some of the activities that can be applied to reduce peer pressure
influence.
4.6 By June 5th, 2022, the students will note how to deal with peer pressure by accepting
occasional loneliness. The students will describe how the best company is oneself and how it is
important to learn to step back from the crowd when it does not appeal to someone in terms of
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the activities being done and their expected outcomes. The students will note that accepting
loneliness is normal when it comes to the need to avoid peer pressure.
5.1 By June 13th, 2022, the students will describe how choosing positive and selfconfident friends can help to sharpen and improve their self-esteem. Even if a person is making
multiple efforts to choose more positive and self-affirming thoughts, one’s self-confidence will
not grow if surrounded by negativity. The students will not know how they will beware of the
friends they talk to and understand that the views of those around them can influence how they
think and what they think about themselves. Hence, to ensure that they improve their self-esteem
levels, the students will be able to describe how finding friends that have specific goals and are
willing to support their goals is vital for their self-esteem and confidence levels.
5.2 By July 18th, 2022, the students will identify at least two activities in which they can
help someone else to boost their self-esteem and confidence. When students help each other in
school, they can showcase their competency and strength in a particular way. By asking students
to describe situations in which they can help their peers, the focus will be on ensuring that they
understand how they can positively interact with others to build themselves.
5.3 By August 24th, 2022, the students will identify how they can improve their selfesteem by paying attention to what they are thinking and striving to change it into a positive
concept. The students will showcase the understanding that if someone’s inner dialogue is
consistently negative, the person will likely have low levels of self-esteem and lack of
confidence. The students will be able to provide two scenarios in which they can think about
their thoughts and stipulate ways to change their thoughts positively.
5.4 By September 15th, 2022, the students will identify ways and scenarios in which they
will ensure that they obtain feedback from their instructors early in time to reduce the potential to
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lose their esteem and confidence. They will identify two scenarios in which they can decide to
obtain early feedback from the tutors or instructors to boost their confidence in the midst of
working on a particular task.
5.5 By October 10th, 2022, the students will be able to identify at least two instances in
school in which they can take negative criticism or comments constructively. This is part of
ensuring that a person does not end up giving up when faced with challenges. Students need to
train themselves to view comments positively, regardless of whether they criticize them or offer
praise. This way, the students will be able to identify a way to get rid of the potential to have low
esteem issues based on what other people tell them.
5.6 By October 10th, 2022, the students will accurately describe that learning is a process
and that they should not have a low self-esteem level or declined confidence because they cannot
make it in the first trial. The students will describe how they can reduce the feeling of low selfesteem by acknowledging that being wrong in the first instance does not mean that there will be
a continued failure.
5.7 By October 26th, 2022, the students will be able to identify at least two ways in which
they plan to keep track of their goals while striving to improve their self-esteem levels. Students
in different levels of education ought to understand what their goals are. This is important in that
it helps them to measure their overall progress. Being flexible and realistic with one’s goals is
important in reducing the potential for unnecessary worry and anxiety that may occur if
unrealistic goals are not achieved. This way, it would be instrumental in describing relevant
approaches that will be considered a way of ensuring that there is a proper formulation of goals
that are capable of making them perform in a better way in what they do.
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5.8 By November 1st, 2022, the students will highlight two major approaches they will
use to avoid negative thoughts, focusing on ensuring that they do not end up having low levels of
self-esteem. Each person is susceptible to feelings of pessimism or feeling that a person has
become doomed due to a particular occurrence. These adverse thoughts usually come from
experiences with bullies, family members, or friends. They can also arise from past failures or
the inability of a person to achieve certain expectations. Based on these aspects, the students will
be required to identify relevant approaches to avoid the potential for these thoughts from
affecting how they think about themselves to the extent of causing a poor lack of confidence and
low self-esteem levels.
5.9 By November 3rd, 2022, the students will be able to highlight and describe two ways
in which they can take chances in college, focusing on ensuring that they obtain new experiences
and learn diverse things. For instance, the students can be asked to describe how being involved
in extracurricular activities will play a role in ensuring that they learn more about how to reduce
the potential to have low self-esteem issues. The students will replicate the fact that by trying and
learning new things, people can learn new things that allow them to become more comfortable
with exploring diverse personal strengths and weaknesses. This way, they will show how feeling
more relaxed and ready to explore diverse settings in life is important for them to achieve better
things in life.
C. Program Components
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The program in question is the New Direction mission that seeks to address families and
individuals affected by drug and alcohol abuse. It will also aim at solving family issues like
lack of school fees and personal issues like low self-esteem under the New Direction
mission. The services provided include intervention and prevention to recovery services. Due
to their conditions, many students are bullied at school and opt to drop out because they
develop the fear, especially when they struggle academically and with other personal
problems. There is also a need to see kids succeeding in school both at the middle and high
school levels. At the middle school level, the learners are expected to have good homework
and coping skills. However, the learners are expected to develop independence at the high
school level and do things independently. Lastly, the students are supposed to tour and
engage in mentor programs or volunteer in society at the school level.
Inputs
The major inputs that will be used in New Directions as a program include the clients, staff,
material resources, equipment, and facilities.
1- Clients:
The clients targeted by this program are teenagers involved in the criminal justice system and
their families. Therefore, the clients will be learners and parents from families struggling
financially or having learners having challenges with drug abuse.
2- Staff:
The staff involved in the program include the teachers and mentors, psychologists/counselors,
juvenile judges, mental healthcare providers, and librarians. The team may also involve the
community partners, state and federal agencies, and other healthcare providers.
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3- Material Resources:
Students guide resources on mental health, tough times, and career vision. These are the reading
materials that will be required to help in ensuring that there is appropriate mentorship for the
student participants in the program.
4- Facilities:
The program will require a mental health facility and rehabilitation center to nurse the mentally
ill group. There will be a section for the teenagers and another one for the adults. It will also be
necessary to organize the facilities according to gender. A library will be necessary to stock
books and learning resources for people who want to be absorbed back to the learning
institutions. Besides, the program requires a youth welfare arena where young people will be
guided on reconnecting with society, especially after being charged with various criminal
activities.
5- Equipment:
Intervention programs are shared through computers/iPads to teach creative thinking and the
English language, among other courses like technical subjects.
Throughputs
There will be numerous services to be provided under this program. They are not limited to
the following: (1) most of the interventions will focus on the students’ individual needs and their
family members, such as individual behavior and academic needs. (2) assigning students to their
different mentors to address the issue of dropping out of school and developing a good
relationship with their teachers and family members. Other services include the prevention and
intervention, recovery, and treatment services provided to the individuals and families affected
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by drugs and alcohol abuse. One key service that should be provided is the issue of rehabilitation
and the child welfare arena through family-centered interventions. In these facilities, the family
members will have the opportunities to visit their loved ones and build resilient environments to
nurture their children, especially those below the age of 18. Due to the difficulty involved in
determining the children involved in the criminal justice system, several stakeholders and
professionals like the substance abuse and mental health professionals, together with the Juvenile
drug court attendants, will be contracted. There will be thorough training for the counselors and
the rest of the team involved in the rehabilitation to ensure that the children restore their selfesteem. Thus, will demand that the training should occur in a one-to-one session with the experts
from New Direction and DISC Village program. Because there are many people affected by drug
abuse and alcohol intake, 20 medical providers will be trained to improve the health condition of
the students involved in the criminal justice system.
Intermediate Outputs
The counselors and the mental health professionals manage to reduce school dropout rates
by teaching the learners how to be confident and develop trust with their peers as we, as family
members. Educate the students on measures to take after withdrawing from drug abuse. Finally,
the parents become more acquainted with the services and methods that can teach children how
to live a disciplined life without affecting their lives. Few children are dropping out of school
due to drug and alcohol abuse within the county.
Final Outputs
After the training and establishment of rehabilitation or child welfare areas, it is expected
that children and parents will be more knowledgeable on how to handle their behavioral
challenges and family struggles that impact the quality of life they are living. Students will also
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learn how to take care of their mental health and the repercussions they risk facing if they do not
follow the orders.
Intermediate outcomes
Fewer children will not drop out of school due to fear of bullying and frustrations with their
academic work. They will develop confidence from the material they are being guided with. The
students will be able to show that they are motivated, inspired, and mentored. This is evident in
how they will show their understanding of the specific deliberations, meetings, and discussions
held in the different meetings, sessions, and workshops.
Final outcomes
The final major outcomes are connected to the program’s understanding and focus on the
concept of ensuring that the students are successful in their studies and other parts of life.
Precisely, the main final outcomes include understanding on life skills, coping skills, knowledge
on how to prepare for college examination, being independent in the process of making different
types of decisions, identifying strategies on the overall ability to say no to peer pressure, and
showing high levels of self-esteem. These outcomes are connected with the aspect of ensuring
that students are adequately mentored and shaped to become highly reliable people in the future.
Children will be in regular attendance to their programs, leading to them passing their classes
with a satisfactory grade and regular attendance.
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References
Adams, S. K. (2019). Empowering and motivating undergraduate students through the process of
developing publishable research. Frontiers in psychology, 10, 1007.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01007
Babinski, L. M., Corra, A. J., & Gifford, E. J. (2016). Evaluation of a public awareness campaign
to prevent high school dropout. The journal of primary prevention, 37(4), 361-375.
Gafni Lachter, L. R., & Ruland, J. P. (2018). We are enhancing leadership and relationships by
implementing a peer mentoring program. Australian occupational therapy journal, 65(4),
276-284. https://doi.org/10.1111/1440-1630.12471
Garcia-Melgar, A., & Meyers, N. (2020). STEM near-peer mentoring for secondary school
students: a case study of university mentors’ experiences with online mentoring. Journal
for STEM Education Research, 3(1), 19-42. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41979-019-00024-9
Hernandez, P. R., Adams, A. S., Barnes, R. T., Bloodhart, B., Burt, M., Clinton, S. M., … &
Fischer, E. V. (2020). Inspiration, inoculation, and introductions are all critical to
successful mentorship for undergraduate women pursuing geoscience careers.
Communications Earth & Environment, 1(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-0200005-y
Kettner, P. M., Moroney, R., & Martin, L. L. (2016). Designing and managing programs: An
effectiveness-based approach.
Running head: NEW DIRECTION
Pragholapati, A. (2020, May 11). COVID-19 IMPACT ON STUDENTS.
https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/NUYJ9
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Program Design and Development Proposal: New Direction
Program Design and Development Proposal: New Direction
Introduction
For many years, schools were developed and designed to provide adequate learning spaces and
environments for students and teachers. Students showed an eagerness and willingness to come to
school ready to learn, and teachers were well appreciated by students. With all that is going on in th e
world today with the COVID-19 pandemic, students are not as willing to attend school leading to an
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increase of students dropping out. Due to classes being taken online, schools did see a 3.1 percent
increase in the graduation rates (Florida’s high school graduation rate increased despite pandemic
impacting classes, 2021). The slight increase dealt with the fact that students had the opportunity to
work at their own pace and in the comfort of their own homes. In 2019-2020, standardized tests were not
required for students to graduate a part of that class. That being stated, it affects the increase in the
graduation rate. With everything slowly going back to normal and the nation gaining some control over
the pandemic, ways to go back to standard procedures must be established. With the partnership from
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University (FAMU) social work students, they will join DISC
Village in creating a new program called New Direction that works alongside available youth services. It
will target different interventions for developing life skills and provide students with strategies to
navigate school. All while preparing the students for adulthood. We intend to align our values with
DISC Village’s values by accomplishing this new program. The organization is committed to developing
a broad continuum of services in response to the multiple and diverse needs of the community while
ensuring public safety.
Describing the Problem
There are numerous researches done to explain the problems students face that led them to drop
out of school and not graduate. One of the most significant issues students face is the zero-tolerance
policy from the Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994, which was part of Improving America’s Schools Act of
1994 (IASA). This policy requires school staff to hand down specific, consistent, and harsh punishment
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to students who break particular rules. The guidelines also made it extremely difficult for minority
students.
● Nearly 345,000 suspensions each year in Florida, including more than 100 at the preschool level
(ACLU, 2018).
● Florida’s black students are 2.5 times as likely to be removed from classrooms as their white
peers (ACLU, 2018)
● Florida schools refer students to law enforcement 30% more often than the national average
(ACLU, 2018).
● Florida schools are more than twice as likely to refer black students to law enforcement and 3.25
times as likely to refer students with Individualized Education Plans (ACLU, 2018).
Low-self Esteem
Having confidence or high self-esteem shows one taking pride in themselves. Low self-esteem
can create anxiety, stress, loneliness, and increased depression. Cause problems with friendships and
romantic relationships. Seriously impair academic and job performance. Many individuals overlook the
impact school has on students’ self-esteem. According to Hoge, Smit, and Hanson (1990), it is a
combination of school factors, family, and innate intelligence that appears to be an essential ingredient
to increasing students’ self-esteem during the academic years.
Additionally, Amundson (1991) reported, in an analysis of data from the National Center for Selfesteem, that as students get older, their self-esteem diminishes(Scott, Murray, Mertens, & Dustin, 1996).
Many believe one of the most significant impacts of low self-esteem is bullying. Direct bullying entails
physical or verbal assaults such as hitting, kicking, punching, spitting, threatening, humiliating and
scorning. Indirect bullying comprises such actions as intimidating someone through gestures or
exclusion, spreading rumors, and insulting through text messaging or e-mailing. In terms of frequency,
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researchers have identified name-calling, rumors, exclusion, physical aggression, racial slurs, and
material damage or theft as the most common forms of bullying, in that order (Schoen & Schoen, 2010).
Over the recent years bullying in school have risen to heights that have demanded national attention.
One study done by the National Middle School Association in 2001 estimates that 160,000 school
children stay home every day to avoid the attacks and intimidations of their peers. Researchers,
associations, and professionals have posited various definitions of bullying.
Mental Health in School
Every school has students struggling with mental health and their potential in school and life
problems. Many face temporary challenges like conflicts with peers, divorce, deployment, or a death in
the family. Some deal with chronic stressors that can cause psychological harm, including poverty,
community violence, homelessness, or abuse. And still, others are coping with emerging or chronic
mental illnesses such as depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and emotional-behavioral disorders.
Students struggling emotionally or psychologically cannot thrive or learn to their potential. Being born
into poverty can put students at a disadvantage due to gang activities, few resources, and the high crime
and violence rate. Numerous studies have shown that youth exposed to these factors have a higher
chance of depression, anxiety, aggression, and PTSD. In 1999, The U.S. Department of Health &
Human Services at least one in five young children “have mental disorders with at least mild functional
impairment. Below are some facts regarding students and mental health.
● About 10 million K-12 students nationwide need professional help for mental health reasons
(Rossen & Cowan, 2015).

In a high school of 750 students, about 150 students will experience a mental illness that
interferes with their learning behavior (Rossen & Cowan, 2015).

Over 100 of those students will not get the help they need (Rossen & Cowan, 2015).
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● Common mental health problems with students include anxiety disorder, attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder, emotional, behavioral disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder,
depression, and other mood disorders (Rossen & Cowan, 2015)
Target Population
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Florida is the third-largest state in the United States of
America, with 27,477,737 students. There are roughly 2,227 high schools in Florida, 1,485 public
schools, and 742 private schools. That means right now, Florida is serving over 15,000 students a year.
The target population for this program will be Leon county (Griffin middle school & Godby high
school), Gadsden county (West Gadsden Middle School, & Gadsden County High School), and
Wakulla county (Wakulla Middle School & Wakulla High School). All of the schools selected are in
areas with limited resources and mentors. Below is information regarding each school provided by the
U.S. News & World Report.
● Griffin Middle School: The school’s minority student enrollment is 94%. The student-teacher
ratio is 17:1. The student population comprises 49% female students and 51% male students. The
school enrolls 74% economically disadvantaged students. There are 38 equivalent full-time
teachers and one full-time school counselor (Florida. U.S. News & World Report., 2021).
● Godby High School: The total minority enrollment is 86%, and 55% of students are
economically disadvantaged. The school is 1 of 14 high schools in Leon (Florida. U.S. News &
World Report., 2021).
● West Gadsden Middle School: The minority student enrollment is 93%. The student-teacher
ratio is 14:1, which is better than the districts. The student population is made up of 50% female
students and 50% male students. The school enrolls 87% economically disadvantaged students.
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There are 25 equivalent full-time teachers and two full-time school counselors (Florida. U.S.
News & World Report., 2021).
● Gadsden County High School: The total minority enrollment is 97%, and 79% of students are
economically disadvantaged. Gadsden County High School is 1 of 6 high schools in the Gadsden
District (Florida. U.S. News & World Report., 2021).
● Wakulla Middle School: The school’s minority student enrollment is 18%. The student-teacher
ratio is 17:1, the same as that of the district. The student population is made up of 44% female
students and 56% male students. The school enrolls 3% economically disadvantaged students.
There are 31 equivalent full-time teachers and one full-time school counselor (Florida. U.S.
News & World Report., 2021).
● Wakulla High School: The total minority enrollment is 20%, and 38% of students are
economically disadvantaged. Wakulla High School is 1 of 3 high schools in Wakulla (Florida.
U.S. News & World Report., 2021).
Rationale for Action
Mentoring dates back to reform-oriented initiatives in the juvenile court system more than a
century ago. These efforts gave rise to Big Brothers Big Sisters of America (BBBSA), the largest and
most well-known program of its kind. The past decade has witnessed a remarkable proliferation of
similarly focused programs that pair caring, adult volunteers with youth from at-risk backgrounds. An
estimated three million youth are informal one-on-one mentoring relationships in the United States, and
funding and growth imperatives fuel program expansion (Rhodes & DuBois, 2008). The high dropout
rate of middle and high school students needs to be reduced. To combat this issue, mentoring programs
are required for the school system. Mentoring has long been accepted as a positive factor in protecting
their mentees in higher education. Mentors are usually adult role models who are a mixture of parent and
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peer to their mentees. They serve as teachers, advisors, and sponsors who encourage and praise their
mentees. Many individuals believe the difference between mentors and non-mentors is not in who they
are but in what mentors do in the mentoring relationship.
● Mentors increase the competencies and performance of mentees by actively demonstrating trust
and confidence in the mentees (Slicker & Palmer, 1993).
● Mentor praises and encouragement (Slicker & Palmer, 1993).
● Mentors explain to the mentees the most desirable behaviors within the system (Slicker &
Palmer, 1993).
● Mentors protect mentees from unjust verbal attacks when necessary (Slicker & Palmer, 1993).
Numerous studies have shown that mentors’ relationship with youth can significantly impact their lives.
In a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of young adults, DuBois and Silverthorn
(2005) found that those who reported having had a mentoring relationship during adolescence exhibited
significantly better outcomes within the domains of education and work (high-school completion,
college attendance, employment), mental health (self-esteem, life satisfaction), problem behavior (gang
membership, fighting, risk-taking), and health (exercise, birth control use) (Rhodes & DuBois, 2008).
There is statistical data to support the benefits of mentoring programs.
● Jolliffe and Farington, in 2007, explored the effects of youth mentoring on recidivism among
juvenile offenders. Based on 18 evaluations, their analyses indicated that youth experiencing
mentoring fared significantly better than those who did not (Rhodes & DuBois, 2008).
● Big Brothers Big Sisters of America did an extensive, random-assignment evaluation of their
new school-based program. The result was at the end of the school year; there were significant
improvements in participants’ academic performance, perceived scholastic efficacy, school
misconduct, and attendance relative to non mentored youth (Rhodes & DuBois, 2008).
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The Framework for the Intervention: The Program Hypothesis
The general hypothesis for the New Directions program is: “The program will demonstrate at least 85%
understanding of life skills and gain resources and materials that will aid in the expansion of the aspect
of prepping for education after high school. The life skills that the program participants’ middle and high
school students between the ages of 11-18 years old, will be able to successfully identify with include:
self-awareness skills, decision-making skills, effective communication, ability to engage in interpersonal
relationships, critical thinking skills, and creative thinking.”The rationale for expecting the program to
help attain positive outcomes is based on the perspective that when students are mentored, inspired.
Motivated, they are highly likely to achieve positive behavioral benefits, which include mentees
participating in peer-mentoring programs were found to have an increase in their well-being and
integration into the academic settings; enhanced self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and academic
satisfaction; made better career choices and perseverance; had more networking and better stress
management; and higher professional competence and satisfaction (Gafni Lachter & Ruland, 2018). This
is because when students are mentored, they achieve the ability to sharpen their overall understanding of
how they can make decisions based on high levels of assertiveness (Adams, 2019). When people are
mentored, they can understand how to interact positively with those around them by sharing their
diverse views.
Mentoring students is also linked with attaining high and positive forms of social-emotional
development. This is possible because they are provided with information on how they should interact
with others by paying attention to their actions’ negative and positive outcomes (Sato et al., 2018). In
addition, mentoring makes it possible for people to succeed because they are encouraged to avoid certain
forms of influence, primarily based on peer pressure. When people are mentored, they can enhance their
levels of self-esteem, linking it to increasing their self-awareness and what they feel about their
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confidence levels (Garcia-Melgar & Meyers, 2020). When students are mentored, they can also be
equipped with diverse forms of succeeding in the classroom and other areas, especially by ensuring that
they understand the best approaches to positively interacting with those around them, regardless of their
diversity in terms of thoughts. They can also determine ways to sharpen their understanding in a class by
going through the allocated materials and establishing clear and straightforward study plans (Hernandez
et al., 2020).
New Direction Mission and Goal Statement
1. Mission Statement
The alarming dropout cases inform the New Direction program of students due to several factors,
including family problems such as high costs of education, particularly private schools, and other personal
needs such as clothing, food, and housing costs. Statistics show that high education costs are among the
highest causes of school drop in the United States of America. Other factors include personal issues such
as academic difficulties, substance abuse, and other secondary factors such as abusive parents. Students
struggle academically, particularly high school students who do not think they have what it takes to make
the GPA necessary to graduate (Rumberger and Lim, 2008). A study has shown that bullying and teasing
in high school are linked to most failure to graduate in the U.S. The study found that a whopping 29
percent of school dropout cases resulted from teasing and bullying. Bullying leads to low self-esteem
amongst the victims, affecting their academic performance. Addressing the leading causes, the dropout
rates are projected to decline long-term. This may include setting life skills lessons for the students to talk
about problems they are going through (Virginia, 2012).
Reduced dropouts translate to an increase in graduation rates, translating to overall students’ success
in their lives. The program will seek to address personal and external issues. The issues will be handled
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through mentorship by the counseling department, which will consist of teachers, former students who
have gone on to complete their studies, and other significant figures in societies that are role models to
the students. The mentors will get to interact with the students at an informal level, making them relaxed
and open up with the challenges they are going through (James, 2018). The mentorship will ensure that
the student’s cognitive development, social and emotional needs are understood. These services will ensure
that the students will have easy access to them to help them talk about their problems, continue their
studies, and advance to higher institutions.
The individual focus will be part of the interventions to the problem. For instance, life skills such as
relationship building should be encouraged. Those students finding it hard to share their problems can
communicate freely with others on what is bothering them and see how they can be helped. Focus on
individual students’ issues will ensure that they learn life skills and more about social lives apart from
academic learning. The program will allocate students to specific counselors and mentors who will focus
on their needs and find measures that will ensure they avoid the thought of dropping out of school. Mentorstudent relationships are essential in a student’s success in school. Good relationships build trust, which
means that students can quickly tell their mentors who may be their teachers when they have personal,
family, or academic problems. This will lead to early intervention, and students’ chances of dropping out
will be minimal. Long-term relationships between students and mentors while in school are meaningful.
This is because students with issues can access their mentors who understand their weaknesses and
strengths and have a face-to-face conversation to find ways to help them solve their problems. With the
decrease in dropout rates, more students will concentrate on their learning, and a high percentage are likely
to graduate to higher institutions in the country. As a result, more students are likely to be graduating, thus
increasing the rate of successful students in the future.
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2. Goal Statement
Goal 1
The goal is for the mentors to help the students who are faced with either external or internal challenges
navigate them through mentorship by making available all necessary mentorship services. This will help
the student achieve a new attitude towards studies and an improved experience with learning.
Goal 2
To enable students who had decided to take mentorship sessions to be reset psychologically to times when
their attitudes towards studies and learning were positive and focus their efforts on growing new attitudes
towards school activities to ensure they are no longer distracted and instead focus on attaining good grades.
Goal 3
To assist students with personal, family, or any other problem that hinders them from continuing with
their studies, take part in the program in making a long-term mentorship relationship with their teachers
that will make them feel free to talk their problems out with their teachers. Also, improve their learning,
achieve good grades, pass their exams and graduate to reach their dreams.
Program Components
The program to be implemented is New Direction, which seeks to address self-awareness skills,
decision-making skills, effective communication, critical and creative thinking skills, and the ability to
engage in interpersonal relationships. It will also aim to improve family interactions. There is also a
need to see kids succeeding at the middle and high school levels. The learners are expected to have good
homework and coping skills at the middle school level. However, the learners are expected to develop
independence at the high school level and do things independently. Lastly, the students are supposed to
tour and engage in mentor programs or volunteer in society at the school level.
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Inputs:
The primary input components used in New Directions as a program include the clients, staff,
material resources, equipment, and facilities.
1. Clients:
The clients targeted by this program will include middle and high school students who are at risk
of failure and dropout. The students involved with the program will have had past behavior issues, poor
decision making, no genuine interest in school or their education, lack substantial family support, and
have no future goals and plans.
2. Staff:
The staff involved in the program of New Direction includes an executive director, four mentors
such as teachers, counselors, a program manager, an accountant, and a grant manager. The team may
also involve the community partners, federal agencies, and other healthcare providers.
3. Material Resources:
Various reading material resources such as students’ guide resources on mental health and career
visions will be used. These reading materials will be required to help in ensuring that they are
appropriate and continuous for the program participants. The program will also develop a curriculum
guide to help the participants in the program.
4. Facilities:
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New Direction will be utilizing the participating school buildings to conduct and run their programs.
Using the school facilities will allow New Direction staff to closely monitor and tend to the students
who have been involved with disciplinary actions
5. Equipment:
Intervention programs are shared through computers/iPads to teach creative thinking and languages,
among other courses like technical subjects. The computers will be kept in the rehabilitation center so
that all the clients can access and learn.
Recording of Goals, Objectives, and Activities
Throughputs:
Inspiration: Inspiration will be provided through talks to the students. There will be general
deliberations and also a provision of specific examples.
Mentoring: There will be interactions between the students and the stakeholders to help them sharpen
their overall understanding and sharing of different views about their current experiences and future
expectations.
Motivation: The students will be motivated to view life in specific contexts, which will help in making it
possible for them to cooperate in the program and focus ahead.
Intermediate Outputs:
The counselors and the mental health professionals from the program will manage to reduce school
dropout rates by teaching the learners how to be confident and develop trust with their peers as we, as
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family members. In addition, the program’s staff will educate the students on measures to take after
withdrawing from drug abuse. Finally, the program will target to train the parents to become more
acquainted with the services and methods that can teach children how to live a disciplined life without
affecting their lives. This will ensure fewer children dropping out of school due to drug and alcohol
abuse within the county.
Final Outputs:
After the training and establishment of rehabilitation or child welfare areas, it is expected that
children and parents will be more knowledgeable on how to handle their behavioral challenges and
family struggles that impact the quality of life they are living. Students will also learn how to take care
of their mental health and the repercussions they risk facing if they do not follow the orders.
Intermediate Outcome Objectives
1.1 By January 12th, 2022, the program participants will be able to demonstrate the attainment and
ability to apply critical thinking skills by evaluating the future outcomes of one’s present decisions and
the actions of others. This objective is instrumental in ensuring that the participants will be able to
determine relevant and alternative solutions and analyze the impact of their values and the values of the
people around them.
1.2 By January 30th, 2022, the program participants will be able to engage in interpersonal
relationships with other people by appropriately demonstrating their competency in the use of
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interpersonal and communication skills. These skills will majorly include verbal and non-verbal
communication, active listening, and the ability to express one’s feelings. Part of the interpersonal
and communication skills that the participants will demonstrate include active and attentive listening
in communicating with those around them.
1.3 By February 15th, 2022, the participating young people will be able to demonstrate the
application of creative thinking as part of life skills when it comes to an understanding a problem,
redefining issues presented to them, transforming thoughts, and reinterpreting information. Creative
thinking skills usually entail originality, elaboration, and fluency. When presented with an idea, the
participants will provide additional and applicable concepts that can be viewed in terms of improved
insight.
1.4 By March 12th, 2022, participants will demonstrate effectiveness in problem-solving as a part of
life skills and show how they can pay attention to using their thought processes via knowledge,
understanding, and skills to manage a presented situation. The participants will demonstrate
competency in this skill by identifying a specific problem (hypothetical or actual) and suggesting
appropriate courses of action, in addition to the corresponding justification for their actions.
1.5 By April 15th, 2022, the participants will demonstrate the application and understanding of selfawareness as a crucial life skill. Self-awareness is a significant skill that is usually
directed towards the self. The participants will be asked to reflect on a particular incident, given that
self-awareness is cultivated through the use of reflection as well as introspection.
2.1 By January 25th, 2022, the participants will be able to correctly identify a scenario in which they
can cope by lowering expectations. Lowering one’s expectations is essential as a coping skill. It helps
prevent people from being stressed or depressed because something has not happened according to their
expectations.
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2.2 By March 27th, 2022, the young people participating in the program will show effectiveness in
coping skills by identifying at least two situations in which they would ask other people for assistance.
Seeking assistance is regarded as a coping skill because it enables people to reduce the overall potential
to be overwhelmed by things to be worried a lot.
2.3 By April 27th, 2022, the young people participating in the program will demonstrate their coping
skills by acknowledging the importance of taking responsibility for a situation. Here, the participants
will be expected to be engaged in an exercise that identifies hypothetical situations that are challenging
and identifies how a leader can be tasked with being responsible and helping the organization and its
members to deal with a particular issue of concern.
2.4 By May 30th, 2022, the participants will be able to mention at least two ways to show coping
skills by identifying two ways to distance themselves from the sources of stress, either at home or the
workplace. The rationale for applying this skill is that in most situations, the issues that people around
them may not directly connect to them, but how they respond to the problems affects those around them.
2.5 By June 21st, 2022, the participants will demonstrate the ability to apply the coping skills of
challenging previously held beliefs that may no longer be adaptive in different settings. The rationale for
this point of view is that, usually, coping skills are connected to the ability of people to deal with
previously held beliefs. Hence, the aspect of the teenager to show the ability to positively deal with
issues that may have occurred in the past and, if left to thrive, may trigger other adverse outcomes.
2.6 By July 30th, 2022, the participants will show their ability to apply coping skills by describing
the importance of maintaining emotional composure when faced with challenges. Emotional composure
is a crucial strategy that makes it possible for people to deal with distressing emotions.
3.1 By January 25th, 2022, senior high school students will describe how being on time and paying
attention can ensure that they succeed in taking their college tests. The students will be able to
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acknowledge that being on time is essential to ensure that a person understands the significant concepts
taught in class and how they can be examined in a test.
3.2 By February 15th, 2022, the participating senior high school students will describe how asking
questions is vital to ensure that they succeed in their college. The students will acknowledge that the
instructor is there to assist and that there is no need to be shy about asking questions in class. The
chances are that the peers will appreciate how a question has been asked and how a specific question and
concept should be handled.
3.3 By March 20th, 2022, the participating young people will connect how participating in class
contributes to the potential for success. They will relate how reading assigned materials ensures that a
person engages in class and how it can help enhance better understanding than when a person does not
go through the assigned reading materials.
3.3 By April 14th, 2022, the participating young people will explain the connection between
succeeding in a unit and the importance of reading the syllabus. The syllabus is one of the essential
materials students obtain from their instructors. It includes details on how much the instructor will focus
on ensuring that the learners understand certain concepts in the class.
3.4 By May 15th, 2022, the students will be able to identify how establishing a study routine and
sticking with it can help them improve their performance and prepare them to succeed in their exams.
The central concept that the students will illustrate is that every course has a specific number of credit
hours attached that a person is expected to fulfill. This way, the participants will identify how a study
plan will be created and encourage the potential to succeed in a particular course.
3.5 By June 20th, 2022, the participating students will be able to identify and describe a note-taking
strategy that will enable them to prepare adequately for assessments. Different note-taking strategies can
enhance the possibility of succeeding in college and other educational settings. The students will be able
Running head: PROGRAM PROPOSAL
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to select and describe a note-taking approach and rationale why the approach has a high potential to
achieve positive outcomes in what they do in school.
3.6 By July 8th, 2022, the students in the program will identify at least two major considerations they
will pay attention to in making their study aids. When it comes to learning, the use of practice tests is
important as it helps students understand questions in a better way and contemplate what can be
examined and how they should go about it. The students will show the ability to create their study aids
and use them to prepare for their exams.
3.7 By June 21st, 2022, the participating students will highlight ways in which they plan to cut out
the distractions that may negatively affect them as they prepare for their exams. Distractions make it
hard for a person to pay attention to what one is doing, making it challenging to commit facts and
concepts to memory. By identifying how different distractions can be blocked, the students will be on
the right path to showing their ability to deal with diverse issues while studying.
4.1 By January 8th, 2022, the participants in the program will describe how paying attention to how a
person feels about something can help deal with peer pressure. If something does not feel right about a
particular situation, then there is a high chance that it is not right. This strategy will help the students
understand that even if their peers engage in a certain activity, it may not be right for them to engage in
the same activity.
4.2 By February 6th, 2022, the participants will describe how planning ahead is a crucial intervention
that reduces the potential for a person to be influenced by peers when making a decision. It is hard for a
person to be swayed by the decisions or opinions of other people when one has already decided what
one wants to do with personal time. In addition, planning what a person can say or do in a given
situation reduces the likelihood of unnecessary peer pressure influence.
4.3 By March 12th, 2022, the participants will describe how they will pay attention to making friends
with similar beliefs and values to avoid unnecessary peer pressure influence. Birds of a feather flock
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together, and the students in the program will depend on this phrase to describe how they will be wise
when selecting their friends in the future to ensure that they do not end up indulging in negative
activities because of peer influence.
4.4 By April 14th, 2022, the students will mention at least two scenarios in which they can seek the
services of the institution’s student counselor to obtain support on how to deal with pressing issues
associated with peer pressure. The services of a school counselor are important in enabling different
students to handle challenges they face on a day-to-day basis. Hence, by understanding the situations in
which they might obtain counseling, they will improve how they can reduce their potential for being
influenced by their peers inappropriately.
4.5 By May 10th, 2022, the students will describe how they can engage in activities that will provide
more self-confidence. Here, the students will acknowledge that the pressure of belonging, even when
one has to engage in activities one is not comfortable with, usually emanates from low self-esteem that a
person believes can be fixed in a group. The students will be able to mention examples such as new
sports, studying a new language, or engaging in a part-time job as some of the activities that can reduce
peer pressure influence.
4.6 By June 5th, 2022, the students will note how to deal with peer pressure by accepting occasional
loneliness. The students will describe how the best company is oneself and how it is important to learn
to step back from the crowd when it does not appeal to someone regarding the activities being done and
their expected outcomes. The students will note that accepting loneliness is normal when it comes to
avoiding peer pressure.
5.1 By June 13th, 2022, the students will describe how choosing positive and self-confident friends
can help to sharpen and improve their self-esteem. Even if a person makes multiple efforts to choose
more positive and self-affirming thoughts, one’s self-confidence will not grow if surrounded by
negativity. The students will not be how they will beware of the friends they talk to and understand that
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20
the views of those around them can influence how they think and what they think about themselves.
Hence, to ensure that they improve their self-esteem levels, the students will describe how finding
friends that have specific goals and are willing to support their goals is vital for their self-esteem and
confidence levels.
5.2 By July 18th, 2022, the students will identify at least two activities to help someone else boost
their self-esteem and confidence. When students help each other in school, they can showcase their
competency and strength in a particular way. By asking students to describe situations in which they can
help their peers, the focus will be on ensuring that they can positively interact with others to build
themselves.
5.3 By August 24th, 2022, the students will identify how they can improve their self-esteem by
paying attention to what they are thinking and striving to change it into a positive concept. The students
will showcase the understanding that if someone’s inner dialogue is consistently negative, the person
will likely have low levels of self-esteem and lack of confidence. The students will be able to provide
two scenarios to think about their thoughts and stipulate ways to change their views positively.
5.4 By September 15th, 2022, the students will identify ways and scenarios to ensure that they obtain
feedback from their instructors early in time to reduce the potential to lose their esteem and confidence.
They will identify two scenarios in which they can decide to obtain early feedback from the tutors or
instructors to boost their confidence while working on a particular task.
5.5 By October 10th, 2022, the students will be able to identify at least two instances in school in
which they can take negative criticism or comments constructively. This ensures that a person does not
give up when faced with challenges. Students need to train themselves to view comments positively,
regardless of whether they criticize them or offer praise. This way, the students will be able to identify a
way to eliminate the potential to have low esteem issues based on what other people tell them.
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5.6 By October 10th, 2022, the students will accurately describe that learning is a process and that
they should not have a low self-esteem level or declined confidence because they cannot make it in the
first trial. The students will describe how they can reduce the feeling of low self-esteem by
acknowledging that being wrong in the first instance does not mean that there will be a continued
failure.
5.7 By October 26th, 2022, the students will be able to identify at least two ways in which they plan
to keep track of their goals while striving to improve their self-esteem levels. Students in different levels
of education ought to understand what their goals are. This is important in that it helps them to measure
their overall progress. Being flexible and realistic with one’s goals is important in reducing the potential
for unnecessary worry and anxiety if unrealistic goals are not achieved. This way, it would be
instrumental in describing relevant approaches that will be considered a way of ensuring that there is a
proper formulation of goals that are capable of making them perform in a better way in what they do.
5.8 By November 1st, 2022, the students will highlight two major approaches to avoid negative
thoughts, focusing on ensuring that they do not end up having low levels of self-esteem. Each person is
susceptible to pessimism or feeling that a person has become doomed due to a particular occurrence.
These adverse thoughts usually come from experiences with bullies, family members, or friends. They
can also arise from past failures or the inability of a person to achieve certain expectations. Based on
these aspects, the students will be required to identify relevant approaches to avoid the potential for
these thoughts from affecting how they think about themselves to the extent of causing a poor lack of
confidence and low self-esteem levels.
5.9 By November 3rd, 2022, the students will be able to highlight and describe two ways they can
take chances in college, focusing on ensuring that they obtain new experiences and learn diverse things.
For instance, the students can be asked to describe how being involved in extracurricular activities will
play a role in ensuring that they learn more about how to reduce the potential to have low self-esteem
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22
issues. The students will replicate the fact that by trying and learning new things, people can learn new
things that allow them to become more comfortable exploring diverse personal strengths and
weaknesses. This way, they will show how feeling more relaxed and ready to explore diverse settings in
life is important for achieving better things in life.
Final Outcomes:
The final major outcomes are connected to the program’s understanding and focus on ensuring
that the students are successful in their studies and other parts of life. Precisely, the main outcomes
include understanding life skills, coping skills, knowledge on how to prepare for college examination,
being independent in making different types of decisions, and identifying strategies on the overall ability
to say no to peer pressure and showing high levels of self-esteem. These outcomes are connected with
ensuring that students are adequately mentored and shaped to become highly reliable people in the
future. Children will be in regular attendance to their programs, leading to them passing their classes
with a satisfactory grade and regular attendance.
Management Information System
Evaluation of Effort
1. The number of participants? Specifically, their ages and gender.
Before each student begins participation with either program, a general information form will be
completed to give New Direction access to basic information about the students, such as age, gender,
current educational level, and behavioral issues at school. New Direction will group the participants
based on age, gender, and educational levels through the form. The programs will have sixty (60)
participants, thirty (30) males and thirty (30) females between the ages of 11-18.
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2.
23
What is the number of materials being used and disbursed amongst clients? The methods as
well.
When subjected to school computers, there will be an opportunity to monitor and track how many
students have logged onto a computer. Once the students have established their presence via online
login, a number will be collected to determine how much material will be used and disbursed for that
current session.
Evaluation of Cost Efficiency
1.
Is the program able to expand outside of the school? Can the budget sustain the program being
run out of its own building?
2. How are the discretionary funds being spent?
New Direction has an educational and developmental focus with that the main aspect is to keep the programs
offered in a school setting. With the budget being allocated the way that it currently is, there is a strong chance
The program would sustain itself outside of the school setting and in its own building.
The current discretionary funds will be used to sustain the budget in the event of any unexpected expenses, or
Any unforeseen cost for repair to equipment or over expenditures at the school.
Evaluation of Outcome
1. What socio-economic group will be most affected? Why?
Students involved in the New Direction program will be sent home with information for their parents to
read and fill out to collect data on this matter. Among the information given, there will be a parent
questionnaire that covers questions about socio-economic status, access to resources, and general
information about the household.
2. Which gender benefits the most from New Direction?
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24
Evaluations will be handed out, touching on just how well the students are about the information
given in the life skills and college prep sessions.
Evaluation of Cost-Effectiveness
1. What is the success rate with clients using the program versus other students?
2. Completion rates?
The program’s effectiveness will be determined by the number of students completing the program.
Success will be determined at a 60% completion rate; that rate will include not missing more than two full
Sessions, completion of all study guides, and being able to demonstrate the application of skills taught, which
Will be demonstrated in small group settings and improved behavior in the everyday school setting.
Misbehavior will be reported to the mentors weekly.
Budget
Budget Justification
Shannon Sapp will serve as the Executive Director; she will contribute 10% of her time in the calendar
year. Based on a 10% contribution to New Direction, the Executive Director will have a set salary of
$8,961, reflecting 10% of FTE (equals .10). The salary calculations are based on the current average
salary noted on the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, annually totaling $89,608. The executive director
will oversee day-to-day activities going in the business, prepare and develop a comprehensive budget,
report revenue and disbursement, and work and engage with groups within the community.
LeNedra Isaac will contribute 80% of her time during the calendar year effort to New Direction as a
Program Director at the cost of $46,720. This salary calculation is based on the current annual average
salary of $58,400 noted on the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. LeNedra would be responsible for
researching, planning, and setting goals for the program.
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25
Dominique Payne will serve as a counselor and will be 100% dedicated to New Direction at the cost of
$64,890. The counselor will be responsible for providing guidance and aid to students who may be
having a hard time adjusting to the new educational environment. New Direction is focusing on youth
that are middle and high school level. The counselor’s salary rate is based on $31.20 per hour for 2075
hours during the calendar year. The salary is compared to those holding the same occupation while in
Florida.
Managers and directors handling programs, grants, and the business will contribute vital assets to New
Direction. The Budget Manager must possess experience with accounting, statistical software, and
financial experience. The Grant Manager will be hired with 75% effort to this program, seeing that they
will only be needed to manage grants provided to inquire about funding for the programs. The
contribution of time to New Direction is at the cost of $71,417 annually salary, sitting at $31 per hour
and dedicating 2050 hours during the calendar year.
Other Personnel
Four mentors will be employed at a rate of $15 per hour for four hours per day, totaling $60 per day,
equaling $1200 per month, $14,400 annually. The stated annual amount will be issued across all four
mentors, totaling $3,600 each.
A total of $206 388 is requested for personnel costs.
Supplies/ Equipment
Classroom materials and supplies will be mainly provided through the schools that New Direction is
working with. Five tablets will be requested, amounting to $500 each for a total of $2,500.
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In-Kind contributions are noted and include present school resources such as printers, office supplies,
paper, ink. New Direction will also be receiving donations of items such as paper, pens/pencils, and
office supplies from local community businesses partnered with DISC Village.
Contractual
The position of an Accountant will be on a part-time basis and will be held by a bank. Their position and
contribution to this program will be estimated at 150 hours. Their experience in this department is also
being utilized at a small local bank, and their hours will be split for work conducted in this program. At
$21 per hour, their total compensation is budgeted at $ 3,150.
All staff and board members will be provided a 1099 at the end of the year for tax purposes. All other
salaries previously stated for board members.
Travel
Training for counselors and mentors is required; three mandatory training sessions are required for those
individuals. Program staff at the different schools participating in the sessions will be conducting the
training. Individuals’ mileage for the trips will be considered in the expenses. Jefferson County (38
minutes, 25 miles out); Gadsden County (42 minutes, 27 miles out); Liberty County, Madison County,
Taylor County (1 hour, 61 miles) and Wakulla County (41 minutes, 25 miles out). The average per-mile
rate will be set at $0.54 per mile. This amount was established based on the 2021 IRS standard mileage
rate. No lodging is needed for training sessions due to sessions conducted during the day and sessions
remaining locally. An amount of $300 is requested for in-state mileage reimbursement. Tackling the
aspects for the students, there will be a request to inquire buses for college tours, $2,000 per trip totaling
$10,000. Lodging for trips will include hotels, totaling $1,000 per trip at five trips totaling $5,000.
Travel expenses are calculated at a total of $15,065.
Training Software
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27
The training software Botvin Life Skills will be available for individuals to interact with, costing a total
of $235 for all trainers. Training will take place at different school locations throughout the county.
Program staff at the different schools participating in the sessions will be conducting the training. The
Coursera training package will be recommended for school computers, as it supports lifelong learning,
totaling $2,500. The Coursera software will also train mentors and prepare them to work with the
students. When the training is completed, mentors will receive a certificate of completion. To acquire all
the training software expenses, the total calculated is $ 2,735.
Other
There will be other costs and expenses totaling $6500.00 to cover the cost of field trips, transportation, tshirts, and food. There will be a total of five college tours per year. Students will have the option of
tours at the University of Florida, University of South Florida, University of Central Florida, Bethune
Cookman University, and the University of North Florida. Students will be provided a t-shirt for each
college tour. Food will be provided by local restaurants/vendors in the designated areas; we will call
ahead to arrange.
Indirect Cost
New Direction will not acquire any indirect cost because the high schools will provide supplies via inkind donations. Based on the facility rental agreement, New Direction will be renting (direct cost) a
classroom for $6.25 per hour for a total of $25 a day for four hours. An amount of $500 a month, $300
for liability insurance, totaling $9,600 a year, including all amenities.
Direct Cost
New Direction’s direct cost will be paying the salary and wages of the Executive Director $8.961,
Program Director $46,720, and Grant Manager $71,417. For supplies and equipment for the program,
Running head: PROGRAM PROPOSAL
28
we will inquire about five tablets, totaling $2,500, and computer software totaling $2,500. For traveling,
the program has Mileage reimbursement of $150, buses $10,000, and lodging $5,000 for other expenses
such as field trips, food, and merchandise $6,500.
Total Cost
The total calculated cost of this program is $350,210, but New Direction is estimating a $500,000
budget to cover all expenses and revenues, leaving room for a $20,000 discretionary budget amount.
Costs reflected in this budget are necessary to establish, run and maintain this program effectively.
Cost per unit of service
New Direction’s start budget is $350,210. The program offers one hour of group therapy to 60 students
after school. There are two groups per day: Life Skills and College Prep programs, given to 20 students
in each group for one hour. The number of units will be 20, making the cost per unit of services $25.
Cost per service completion
New Direction is looking to work with 60 students who are anticipated to complete 60 percent of the
program. With the budget being $500,000 to find the cost per completion service, we will time the total
budget by 60 percent. Therefore, the estimate at completion would be $300,000.
Cost per client outcome
New Direction is a school-based program and directly receives a referral from the school. The referral is
for students struggling in academia and has high discriminatory actions. To ensure the program is
beneficial to students, there will be weekly check-in to ensure students do not have any disciplinary
action such as in-school suspension (ISS), disciplinary referrals, out-of-school suspension, etc. Students
Running head: PROGRAM PROPOSAL
29
will complete a survey at the end of every quarter asking how they feel about the material they learn,
suggestions on improving learning, and what they like and did not like about the school quarter.
Table 1.1 below shows all costs and anticipated expenses that the program will incur during the year.
The budget and expenses will be re-evaluated quarterly, and there is a $20,000 discretionary fund set
aside for unexpected expenses and to be able to readjust the budget as needed. The supplies category
covers the cost of the two training software used in the college prep program. As for the Employee
Related Expenses, New Direction will only have ERE for the following staff positions such as the
Executive Director (ERE= 2,240), grant manager (ERE=17,854), and program director (ERE=11,680).
To calculate the ERE of each employee, the salary amount was multiplied by 25% (.25). All other
employees will be considered contractual and will receive a 1099 at the end of the year.
Table 1.1 New Directions Budget Line
Budget Line Item
Life Skills
Program
Salaries and Wages
Executive Director
$8,961
Grant Manager
$71,417
Accountant
$ 3,150.
Program Director
$46,720
Counselor
$64,890
College Prep Program
Indirect Cost
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Mentors 4 @ 3,600
$57,600
1.
Total salaries
and wages
$195,138.00
2.
ERE @25%
Taxes for salaried emps
$31,774
3.
30
$57,600
Rent/Utilities
$6,000
4.
Liability
Insurance
$3,600
5. Supplies
$2,735
6.
$21,650
Travel/Trips
7.
Other
(Miscellaneous)
Totals
$195,138.00
$81,985.00
Allocated Indirect Costs
$7,024.97
$2,869.48
Total Direct and Indirect Costs
202,162.97
$84,854.48
$9,600.00
References
Botvin LifeSkills Training. (2017). Botvin LifeSkills Training. https://www.lifeskillstraining.com/
Coursera. (2017). Coursera | Online Courses &
Credentials by Top Educators. Join for Free. Coursera. https://www.coursera.org/
Florida’s high school graduation rate increased despite pandemics impacting classes. (2021, January
8th). WFTS. https://www.abcactionnews.com/news/state/floridas-high-school-graduation-rateincreased-despite-pandemic-impacting-classes
James, M. (2018). Causes of High School Dropouts. Retrieved from LoveToKnow website:
https://teens.lovetoknow.com/Causes_of_High_School_Dropouts
Running head: PROGRAM PROPOSAL
31
Rumberger, R. and Lim, S., 2008. Why Students Dropout of School: A Review of 25 Years of Research.
[ebook] Available at: [Accessed 25 November
2021].
Tallahassee, FL – May 2019 OES Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Area Occupational Employment
and Wage Estimates. (n.d.). Www.bls.gov.https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes_45220.htm
Virginia, E. (2012). More students drop out in bullying ‘climates’ – Futurity. Retrieved November 24th,
2021, from https://www.futurity.org/more-students-drop-out-in-bullying-climates/.
ACLU. (2018, April 12th). Florida’s School to Prison Pipeline. ACLU of Florida. Retrieved
November 9th, 2021, from https://www.aclufl.org/en/floridas-school-prison-pipeline.
Pragholapati, A. (2020, May 11th). COVID-19 IMPACT ON STUDENTS.
https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/NUYJ9.
SCHOEN, S., & SCHOEN, A. (2010). Bullying and Harassment in the United States. The Clearing
House, 83(2), 68–72. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20697902
Scott, C. G., Murray, G. C., Mertens, C., & Dustin, E. R. (1996). Student Self-Esteem and the School
System: Perceptions and Implications. The Journal of Educational Research, 89(5), 286–293.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/27542046
K-12 School Rankings in Florida. U.S. News & World Report. . (2021). Retrieved December 2nd, 2021,
from https://www.usnews.com/education/rankings?int=top_nav_Rankings.
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Rossen, E., & Cowan, K. C. (2014). Improving mental health in schools. Th…

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