# WSSU Statistical Methods in Criminal Justice Exam Practice

Statistical Methods in Criminal Justice Questions.
1. The variation ratio offers information about what?
whether the variation ratio and variance are indicating similar squares of the deviation scores
whether the data tend to cluster inside the modal category or whether a fair amount of the cases are located in
other categories
whether the variance, standard deviation, and range are in accord with the bounding rule
whether the modal category adheres to the midpoint of the margins rule
S2 is the statistical symbol for ______.
variance
standard deviation
none of these
square root
Substantively, the ______ is the mean of the deviation scores.
minimum
maximum
standard deviation
Variation
The variation ratio is a spinoff of what rule?
the rule of limits
the rule of requirement
the rule of boundary
the rule of the complement
A very large variation ratio would be indicative of which of the following circumstances?
a vast majority of the cases outside the modal category
a vast majority of cases having a standard deviation of −1.00
a vast majority of the cases in the modal category
a vast majority of cases having a small variance
The amount of spread or variability among scores in a distribution is also referred to as which of
the following?
clustering
valence
normality
dispersion
There is a rule dictating that all proportions range from 0.00 to 1.00. What is the name of this rule?
rule of complement
bounding rule
rule of completeness
boundary requiremen
In a normal distribution, approximately how many of the scores lie within 1 standard deviation
below and 1 standard deviation above the mean.
67% or 2/3
25% or1/4
75% or 3/4
50% or half
A great deal of dispersal in a data distribution would ultimately produce
which of the following?
a negative variance
a negative standard deviation
a large standard deviation
a small standard deviation
In order to calculate the variation ratio, what must first be identified?
standard deviation
median
mean
Mode
The sum of the deviation scores used in the calculation of the variance
and standard deviation will always be ______.
0.1
none of these, as deviation scores do not play a role in the
calculation of the variance
0
1
In the following list, the only measure of dispersion that is suitable
for nominal and ordinal data is ______.
the dispersal ratio
the variation ratio
the bounding rule
the ratio
Which of the following is true with regard to the variance?
The variance is essentially the sum of the total squared
deviations from the mean divided by the sample size −1.
The variance is essentially the square of the deviation scores.
The variance is essentially the square root of the squared
deviations from the mean divided by the sample size.
The variance is essentially the sum of the deviation scores
The standard deviation is actually a relatively simple statistic to
calculate because ______.
it is the square root of the deviation scores
it is the square of the deviation scores
it is the square root of the variance
it is the square of the variance
The Rule of the Complement maintains that ______.
the proportion of cases that are not in a certain category can
be found by subtracting the proportion that is in that category
from 0.
the value of the variance when added to the standard
deviation of a distribution will always sum to 1.00.
the proportion of cases that are not in a certain category can
be found by subtracting the proportion that is in that category
from 1.00.
the value of the variation ratio when added to the variance
will always sum to 1.00.
The normal or typical scores in a distribution are located
approximately ______ and ______ the mean.
two variations below; two variations above
one variation below; one variation above
2 standard deviations below; 2 standard deviations above
1 standard deviation below; 1 standard deviation above
Which of the following is a better measure of dispersion when the
data are continuous?
range
mean
variance
variation ratio
Generally speaking, scores that are more than one ______ below
or above the mean are not common.
variance
variation ratio
none of the above
standard deviation
What is the measure of how much a distribution curve’s width
departs from normality?
leptokurtosis
dispersion
variance
kurtosis
The standard deviation is usually presented in conjunction with
the ______ in the description of a continuous variable.
range
median
mean
mode
The mean of the deviation scores in any data distribution is also
known by research scientists as what?
the mean
the variation ratio
the standard deviation
the variance
Dispersion can also be understood as the amount of ______ in a
set of raw scores.
variability
normality
skew
Closeness
One disadvantage of using the range as a measure of dispersion
is ______?
it is not a reliable measure suitable for use with continuous
or interval level data
it uses very little of the data in a distribution, therefore a
researcher has no information regarding the shape of the
distribution
it uses most of the raw data in a distribution, therefore
allowing a researcher little discretion in the analysis
it offers a researcher so much information regarding the
shape of the distribution that subsequent analyses are
rendered unnecessary
One characteristic of the Standard Deviation is that it can never be ______.
the square root of the variance
a negative number
a positive number
the absolute value of the variance
A ______ standard deviation would be indicated by a clustering of the raw values close to the mean of the
distribution.
large
normal
small
skewed

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